Alarming Racial Differences in Maternal Mortality

Jada Stokes

Dr. Tribble

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Economics 400




Article 1

Alarming Racial Differences in Maternal Mortality

The author analyses data that show the difference in maternal mortality rates among black, non-white and white women. Statistics from this study show that a black American woman is 2 to 6 times likely to die from pregnancy complications than a white woman. Data collected between 1979 and 1992 shows that mortality ratios in 100 000 women were 25:1 in black women and 6:0 in white women. The methodologies used in this study include a collection of updated data from maternal care providers.

The primary causes of mortality among all American women include hemorrhage, embolism, and pregnancy-induced hypertension. Hemorrhage is the biggest cause of this problem, and in every four women who die from this condition, only one is white. This further confirms that black women are at a higher risk of passing on during their pregnancies and childbirth than white women.

Some of the factors that create a huge race-oriented disparity in maternal mortality in the USA include lifestyle. A huge percentage of black women lead hazardous lifestyles, which puts them at a higher risk of facing difficulties during their pregnancies. Environmental factors also contribute to high mortality rates for black women. Air pollution in the residences of black women causes preterm births. This is because black women are more likely to live in an air polluted environment than their white counterparts. Study shows that black women live in populated areas which are more prone to crimes, than more suburban environments. Poor sanitation in city areas leads to viruses, bacterias, and diseases that may affect human health and are detrimental to unborn children. For women that live in more urban and metropolitan locations, the maternal mortality rate is higher than for women that live in suburban areas. The lifestyle includes the kinds of foods they eat, where most foods synonymous with the blacks contain folic acid. This is significant because this means by living in a highly populated city it will cause maternal mortality to increase.

Lack of proper care also plays a role in creating a gap between black and white women regarding mortality rates. A huge chunk of black women cannot afford top-quality care when they are pregnant. These are especially the women who get unplanned pregnancies.

The ideal solution to this problem is providing civic education to the communities that continue to put their pregnant women at risk. The education should address different issues, including the importance of getting proper care while pregnant.









Article 2

Ethnic Disparities in Pregnancy-Related Deaths

African American women continue to lead in pregnancy mortality in the USA, according to this study. This is despite efforts to try and provide better care for all pregnant women. This study’s primary methodologies include questionnaires to health care providers and data collection from authorities that deal with maternal issues.

One theory brought forward by this study is that a huge percentage of African American women do not appreciate modern maternal care. Many black women believe that they can take care of their pregnancies without following the guidelines provided by experts. The lack of proper care ultimately leads to problems that are noticed when it is already too late.

The level of education has also played a role in exposing more African Americans to pregnancy-related issues. Statistics show that white women are more likely to get higher education compared to black women. The highly educated women understand the importance of taking care of their pregnancies, which plays an important role in making their pregnancies easier. Lack of proper education among black women is also a main contributor to stillbirths  among pregnant women. This is because some women, especially minority women, lack the necessary knowledge on how to handle their situation through accessing medical care if the need arises. Education helps people to know the dangers associated with pregnancy and call for help if there is a need. Poor education among the blacks in the United States has greatly affected the lives of women and their unborn children since they have no idea how to take care of themselves. Poor educational backgrounds affect the lives of pregnant mothers since they cannot secure good jobs due to a lack of qualifications. This makes them live stressful lives since they cannot afford basic needs. Strain for needs poses a challenge to their lives which causes premature births and deaths. Poor education also leads to the higher likelihood of sexually transmitted diseases, some of which can also be transmitted to children. A lack of formal education, especially on poor, minority women, can have a very large impact on the level of care that they will receive. So education and maternal mortality are inversely related. As one’s educational level increases, maternal mortality will decline.

The ideal way to reduce the mortality rate among black pregnant women is to take health care to the communities where such women live. Health workers should ensure they take care of the pregnant women in black communities, especially in places where poverty levels are relatively high. Women in such areas fail to seek the necessary care when they are pregnant because they lack the necessary insight. Trying to reach these women by providing the necessary care even in communities with higher poverty levels will resolve this issue.









Article 3

Racial and Ethnic Disparities Continue in Pregnancy-Related Deaths

Black and native women having more complications during pregnancy than white women remain a major concern in the USA. This study is done in Alaska, and some of the methodologies used include collecting data available in medical centers and questioning people who are affected by this underlying problem. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the disparity increases with age.

Results show that black and native women above 30 years are more likely to be affected by this problem. There is also an indicator that even if Alaska is one of the most affected regions, the Pregnancy-Related Mortality Ratio (PRMR) problem is a national issue that is more complex than most people think. There are complex factors that contribute to this problem, and dealing with them will take time and effort from different agencies.

The women affected women are from communities that are considered to be poor. These women mostly use public medical facilities because they cannot afford the more personalized care. The majority of these women do not even have time to go for regular checkups during their pregnancies because they are too busy working or doing other things to better their lives. Black and native women are also more likely to be involved in unhealthy lifestyles. Statistics show that usage of unhealthy substances such as drugs and alcohol is more prevalent among women from the races with higher rates of poverty. CDC and other related agencies are financing and providing other types of support to efforts’ geared towards dealing with this problem.

The study concludes that the problem of higher pregnancy mortality rates among black and native women is resolvable. But it will  take time to deal with the complex factors that lead to this problem. A lot could be improved to cater to the blacks by including community-based provisions of how to get Planned Parenthood. Such a setting with the inclusion of community-based providers could assist black women in getting a way of making decisive choices throughout one’s life span, including when to begin a family or become a parent. There also ought to have available protective rules and acts for black women who have continuously reported about the faced discrimination, which is far more predominant as compared to other ethnicities and races.














Article 4

Eliminating Racial Disparities in Maternal and Infant Mortality

The discovery made in this study is that the survival rates for Af

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