Baseball Magic by George Gmelch

Article 32
Baseball Magic
George Gmelch
On each pitching day for the first three
months of a winning season, Dennis
Grossini, a pitcher on a Detroit Tiger farm
team, arose from bed at exactly 10:00 a.m.
At 1:00 p.m. he went to the nearest restaurant
for two glasses of iced tea and a
tuna sandwich. Although the afternoon
was free, he changed into the sweatshirt
and supporter he wore during his last winning
game, and, one hour before the
game, he chewed a wad of Beech-Nut
chewing tobacco. After each pitch during
the game he touched the letters on his uniform
and straightened his cap after each
ball. Before the start of each inning he replaced
the pitcher’s resin bag next to the
spot where it was the inning before. And
after every inning in which he gave up a
run, he washed his hands.
When asked which part of the ritual
was most important, he said, “You can’t
really tell what’s most important so it all
becomes important. I’d be afraid to
change anything. As long as I’m winning,
I do everything the same.”
Trobriand Islanders, according to anthropologist
Bronislaw Malinowski, felt
the same way about their fishing magic.
Among the Trobrianders, fishing took
two forms: in the inner lagoon where fish
were plentiful and there was little danger,
and on the open sea where fishing was
dangerous and yields varied widely. Malinowski
found that magic was not used in
lagoon fishing, where men could rely
solely on their knowledge and skill. But
when fishing on the open sea, Trobrianders
used a great deal of magical ritual to
ensure safety and increase their catch.
Baseball, America’s national pastime,
is an arena in which players behave remarkably
like Malinowski’s Trobriand
fishermen. To professional ballplayers,
baseball is more than just a game. It is an
occupation. Since their livelihoods depend
on how well they perform, many use
magic to try to control the chance that is
built into baseball. There are three essential
activities of the game—pitching, hitting,
and fielding. In the first two, chance
can play a surprisingly important role.
The pitcher is the player least able to control
the outcome of his own efforts. He
may feel great and have good stuff warming
up in the bullpen and then get into the
game and not have it. He may make a bad
pitch and see the batter miss it for a strike
out or see it hit hard but right into the
hands of a fielder for an out. His best pitch
may be blooped for a base hit. He may
limit the opposing team to just a few hits
yet lose the game, or he may give up a
dozen hits but still win. And the good and
bad luck don’t always average out over
the course of a season. Some pitchers end
the season with poor won-loss records but
good earned run averages, and vice versa.
For instance, this past season Andy Benes
gave up over one run per game more than
his teammate Omar Daal but had a better
won-loss record. Benes went 14–13,
while Daal was only 8–12. Both pitched
for the same team—the Arizona Diamondbacks—
which meant they had the
same fielders behind them. Regardless of
how well a pitcher performs, on every
outing he depends not only on his own
skill, but also upon the proficiency of his
teammates, the ineptitude of the opposition,
and luck.
Hitting, which many observers call the
single most difficult task in the world of
sports, is also full of risk and uncertainty.
Unless it’s a home run, no matter how
well the batter hits the ball, fate determines
whether it will go into a waiting
glove, whistle past a fielder’s diving stab,
or find a gap in the outfield. The uncertainty
is compounded by the low success
rate of hitting: the average hitter gets only
one hit in every four trips to the plate,
while the very best hitters average only
one hit every three trips. Fielding, as we
will return to later, is the one part of baseball
where chance does not play much of
a role.
How does the risk and uncertainty in
pitching and hitting affect players? How
do they try to exercise control over the
outcomes of their performance? These
are questions that I first became interested
in many years ago as both a ballplayer and
an anthropology student. I’d devoted
much of my youth to baseball, and played
professionally as first baseman in the Detroit
Tigers organization in the 1960s. It
was shortly after the end of one baseball
season that I took an anthropology course
called “Magic, Religion, and Witchcraft.”
As I listened to my professor describe
the magical rituals of the Trobriand
Islanders, it occurred to me that what
these so-called “primitive” people did
wasn’t all that different from what my
teammates and I did for luck and confidence
at the ball park.
The most common way players attempt to
reduce chance and their feelings of uncertainty
is to develop and follow a daily routine,
a course of action which is regularly
followed. Talking about the routines ballplayers
follow, Pirates coach Rich Donnelly
They’re like trained animals. They
come out here [ballpark] and evANNUAL
erything has to be the same, they
don’t like anything that knocks
them off their routine. Just look at
the dugout and you’ll see every
guy sitting in the same spot every
night. It’s amazing, everybody in
the same spot. And don’t you dare
take someone’s seat. If a guy
comes up from the minors and sits
here, they’ll say, ‘Hey, Jim sits
here, find another seat.’ You watch
the pitcher warm up and he’ll do
the same thing every time. And
when you go on the road it’s the
same way. You’ve got a routine
and you adhere to it and you don’t
want anybody knocking you off it.
Routines are comforting, they bring
order into a world in which players have
little control. And sometimes practical elements
in routines produce tangible benefits,
such as helping the player
concentrate. But what players often do
goes beyond mere routine. Their actions
become what anthropologists define as
ritual—prescribed behaviors in which
there is no empirical connection between
the means (e.g., tapping home plate three
times) and the desired end (e.g., getting a
base hit). Because there is no real connection
between the two, rituals are not rational,
and sometimes they are actually
irrational. Similar to rituals are the nonrational
beliefs that form the basis of taboos
and fetishes, which players also use
to reduce chance and bring luck to their
side. But first let’s look more closely at
Most rituals are personal, that is,
they’re performed by individuals rather
than by a team or group. Most are done in
an unemotional manner, in much the
same way players apply pine tar to their
bats to improve the grip or dab eye black
on their upper cheeks to reduce the sun’s
glare. Baseball rituals are infinitely varied.
A ballplayer may ritualize any activity—
eating, dressing, driving to the
ballpark—that he considers important or
somehow linked to good performance.
For example, Yankee pitcher Denny Neagle
goes to a movie on days he is scheduled
to start. Pitcher Jason Bere listens to
the same song on his Walkman on the
days he is to pitch. Jim Ohms puts another
penny in the pouch of his supporter after
each win. Clanging against the hard plastic
genital cup, the pennies made a noise
as he ran the bases toward the end of a
winning season. Glenn Davis would chew
the same gum every day during hitting
streaks, saving it under his cap. Infielder
Julio Gotay always played with a cheese
sandwich in his back pocket (he had a big
appetite, so there might also have been a
measure of practicality here). Wade
Boggs ate chicken before every game during
his career, and that was just one of
dozens of elements in his pre and post
game routine, which also included leaving
his house for the ballpark at precisely
the same time each day (1:47 for a 7:05
game). Former Oriole pitcher Dennis
Martinez would drink a small cup of water
after each inning and then place it under
the bench upside down, in a line. His
teammates could always tell what inning
it was by counting the cups.
Many hitters go through a series of preparatory
rituals before stepping into the
batter’s box. These include tugging on
their caps, touching their uniform letters
or medallions, crossing themselves, tapping
or bouncing the bat on the plate, or
swinging the weighted warm-up bat a prescribed
number of times. Consider Red
Sox Nomar Garciaparra. After each pitch
he steps out of the batters box, kicks the
dirt with each toe, adjusts his right batting
glove, adjusts his left batting glove, and
touches his helmet before getting back
into the box. Mike Hargrove, former
Cleveland Indian first baseman, had so
many time consuming elements in his batting
ritual that he was known as “the human
rain delay.” Both players believe
their batting rituals helped them regain
their concentration after each pitch. But
others wonder if they have become prisoners
of their own superstitions. Also,
players who have too many or particularly
bizarre rituals risk being labeled as
“flakes,” and not just by teammates but by
fans and media as well. For example,
pitcher Turk Wendell’s eccentric rituals,
which included wearing a necklace of
teeth from animals he had killed, made
him a cover story in the New York Times
Sunday Magazine.
Some players, especially Latin Americans,
draw upon rituals from their Roman
Catholic religion. Some make the
sign of the cross or bless themselves before
every at bat, and a few like the Rangers’
Pudge Rodriguez do so before every
pitch. Others, like the Detroit Tiger Juan
Gonzalez, also visibly wear religious medallions
around their necks, while some
tuck them discretely inside their undershirts.
One ritual associated with hitting is
tagging a base when leaving and returning
to the dugout between innings. Some
players don’t “feel right” unless they tag
a specific base on each trip between the
dugout and the field. One of my teammates
added some complexity to his ritual
by tagging third base on his way to the
dugout only after the third, sixth, and
ninth innings. Asked if he ever purposely
failed to step on the bag, he replied,
“Never! I wouldn’t dare. It would destroy
my confidence to hit.” Baseball fans observe
a lot of this ritual behavior, such as
fielders tagging bases, pitchers tugging
on their caps or touching the resin bag after
each bad pitch, or smoothing the dirt
on the mound before each new batter or
inning, never realizing the importance of
these actions to the player. The one ritual
many fans do recognize, largely because
it’s a favorite of TV cameramen, is the
“rally cap”—players in the dugout folding
their caps and wearing them bill up in
hopes of sparking a rally.
Most rituals grow out of exceptionally
good performances. When a player does
well, he seldom attributes his success to
skill alone. He knows that his skills were
essentially the same the night before. He
asks himself, “What was different about
today which explains my three hits?” He
decides to repeat what he did today in an
attempt to bring more good luck. And so
he attributes his success, in part, to an object,
a food he ate, not having shaved, a
new shirt he bought that day, or just about
any behavior out of the ordinary. By repeating
that behavior, he seeks to gain
control over his performance. Outfielder
John White explained how one of his rituals
I was jogging out to centerfield after
the national anthem when I
picked up a scrap of paper. I got
some good hits that night and I
guess I decided that the paper had
something to do with it. The next
night I picked up a gum wrapper
Article 32. Baseball Magic
and had another good night at the
plate… I’ve been picking up paper
every night since.
Outfielder Ron Wright of the Calgary
Cannons shaves his arms once a week and
plans to continue doing so until he has a
bad year. It all began two years before
when after an injury he shaved his arm so
it could be taped, and proceeded to hit
three homers over the next few games.
Now he not only has one of the smoothest
swings in the minor leagues, but two of
the smoothest forearms. Wade Boggs’
routine of eating chicken before every
game began when he was a rookie in
1982. He noticed a correlation between
multiple hit games and poultry plates (his
wife has over 40 chicken recipes). One of
Montreal Expos farmhand Mike Saccocio’s
rituals also concerned food, “I got
three hits one night after eating at Long
John Silver’s. After that when we’d pull
into town, my first question would be,
“Do you have a Long John Silver’s?” Unlike
Boggs, Saccocio abandoned his ritual
and looked for a new one when he stopped
hitting well.
When in a slump, most players make a
deliberate effort to change their rituals
and routines in an attempt to shake off
their bad luck. One player tried taking different
routes to the ballpark; several players
reported trying different combinations
of tagging and not tagging particular
bases in an attempt to find a successful
combination. I had one manager who
would rattle the bat bin when the team was
not hitting well, as if the bats were in a stupor
and could be aroused by a good shaking.
Similarly, I have seen hitters rub their
hands along the handles of the bats protruding
from the bin in hopes of picking
up some power or luck from bats that are
getting hits for their owners. Some players
switch from wearing their contact
lenses to glasses. Brett Mandel described
his Pioneer League team, the Ogden Raptors,
trying to break a losing streak by using
a new formation for their pre-game
Taboos are the opposite of rituals. The
word taboo comes from a Polynesian term
meaning prohibition. Breaking a taboo,
players believe, leads to undesirable consequences
or bad luck. Most players observe
at least a few taboos, such as never
stepping on the white foul lines. A few,
like the Mets Turk Wendell and Red Sox
Nomar Garciaparra, leap over the entire
basepath. One teammate of mine would
never watch a movie on a game day, despite
the fact that we played nearly every
day from April to September. Another
teammate refused to read anything before
a game because he believed it weakened
his batting eye.
Many taboos take place off the field,
out of public view. On the day a pitcher is
scheduled to start, he is likely to avoid activities
he believes will sap his strength
and detract from his effectiveness. Some
pitchers avoid eating certain foods, others
will not shave on the day of a game, refusing
to shave again as long as they are
winning. Early in the 1989 season Oakland’s
Dave Stewart had six consecutive
victories and a beard by the time he lost.
Taboos usually grow out of exceptionally
poor performances, which players, in
search of a reason, attribute to a particular
behavior. During my first season of pro
ball I ate pancakes before a game in which
I struck out three times. A few weeks later
I had another terrible game, again after
eating pancakes. The result was a pancake
taboo: I never again ate pancakes during
the season. Pitcher Jason Bere has a taboo
that makes more sense in dietary terms:
after eating a meatball sandwich and not
pitching well, he swore off them for the
rest of the season.
While most taboos are idiosyncratic,
there are a few that all ball players hold
and that do not develop out of individual
experience or misfortune. These form
part of the culture of baseball, and are
sometimes learned as early as Little
League. Mentioning a no-hitter while one
is in progress is a well-known example. It
is believed that if a pitcher hears the words
“no-hitter,” the spell accounting for this
hard to achieve feat will be broken and the
no-hitter lost. This taboo is also observed
by many sports broadcasters, who use
various linguistic subterfuges to inform
their listeners that the pitcher has not
given up a hit, never saying “no-hitter.”
Fetishes or charms are material objects
believed to embody “supernatural”
power that can aid or protect the owner.
Good luck charms are standard equipment
for some ballplayers. These include
a wide assortment of objects from coins,
chains, and crucifixes to a favorite baseball
hat. The fetishized object may be a
new possession or something a player
found that happens to coincide with the
start of a streak and which he holds responsible
for his good fortune. While
playing in the Pacific Coast League, Alan
Foster forgot his baseball shoes on a road
trip and borrowed a pair from a teammate.
That night he pitched a no-hitter, which he
attributed to the shoes. Afterwards he
bought them from his teammate and they
became a fetish. Expo farmhand Mark
LaRosa’s rock has a different origin and
I found it on the field in Elmira after
I had gotten bombed. It’s unusual,
perfectly round, and it
caught my attention. I keep it to remind
me of how important it is to
concentrate. When I am going well
I look at the rock and remember to
keep my focus, the rock reminds
me of what can happen when I lose
my concentration.
For one season Marge Schott, former
owner of the Cincinnati Reds, insisted
that her field manager rub her St. Bernard
“Schotzie” for good luck before each
game. When the Reds were on the road,
Schott would sometimes send a bag of the
dog’s hair to the field manager’s hotel
During World War II, American soldiers
used fetishes in much the same way.
Social psychologist Samuel Stouffer and
his colleagues found that in the face of
great danger and uncertainty, soldiers developed
magical practices, particularly
the use of protective amulets and good
luck charms (crosses, Bibles, rabbits’
feet, medals), and jealously guarded articles
of clothing they associated with past
experiences of escape from danger.2
Stouffer also found that prebattle preparations
were carried out in fixed ritualANNUAL
like order, similar to ballplayers preparing
for a game.
Uniform numbers have special significance
for some players who request their
lucky number. Since the choice is usually
limited, they try to at least get a uniform
that contains their lucky number, such as
14, 24, 34, or 44 for the player whose
lucky number is four. When Ricky Henderson
came to the Blue Jays in 1993 he
paid outfielder Turner Ward $25,000 for
the right to wear number 24. Oddly
enough, there is no consensus about the
effect of wearing number 13. Some players
will not wear it, others will, and a few
request it. Number preferences emerge in
different ways. A young player may request
the number of a former star, hoping
that—through what anthropologists call
imitative magic—it will bring him the
same success. Or he may request a number
he associates with good luck. While
with the Oakland A’s Vida Blue changed
his uniform number from 35 to 14, the
number he wore as a high-school quarterback.
When 14 did not produce better
pitching performance, he switched back
to 35. Former San Diego Padre first baseman
Jack Clark changed his number from
25 to 00, hoping to break out of a slump.
That day he got four hits in a double
header, but also hurt his back. Then, three
days later, he was hit in the cheekbone by
a ball thrown in batting practice.
Colorado Rockies Larry Walker’s fixation
with the number three has become
well known to baseball fans. Besides
wearing 33, he takes three practice swings
before stepping into the box, he showers
from the third nozzle, sets his alarm for
three minutes past the hour and he was
wed on November 3 at 3:33 p.m. Fans in
ballparks all across America rise from
their seats for the seventh inning stretch
before the home club comes to bat because
the number seven is lucky, although
the origin of this tradition has been lost.
Clothing, both the choice and the order
in which they are put on, combine elements
of both ritual and fetish. Some
players put on their uniform in a ritualized
order. Expos farmhand Jim Austin always
puts on his left sleeve, left pants leg, and
left shoe before the right. Most players,
however, single out one or two lucky articles
or quirks of dress for ritual elaboration.
After hitting two home runs in a
game, for example, ex-Giant infielder Jim
Davenport discovered that he had missed
a buttonhole while dressing for the game.
For the remainder of his career he left the
same button undone. For outfielder Brian
Hunter the focus is shoes, “I have a pair of
high tops and a pair of low tops. Whichever
shoes don’t get a hit that game, I
switch to the other pair.” At the time of our
interview, he was struggling at the plate
and switching shoes almost every day.
For Birmingham Baron pitcher Bo
Kennedy the arrangement of the different
pairs of baseball shoes in his locker is critical:
I tell the clubies [clubhouse boys]
when you hang stuff in my locker
don’t touch my shoes. If you bump
them move them back. I want the
Pony’s in front, the turfs to the
right, and I want them nice and
neat with each pair touching each
other…. Everyone on the team
knows not to mess with my shoes
when I pitch.
During streaks—hitting or winning—
players may wear the same clothes day after
day. Once I changed sweatshirts midway
through the game for seven
consecutive nights to keep a hitting streak
going. Clothing rituals, however, can become
impractical. Catcher Matt Allen
was wearing a long sleeve turtle neck shirt
on a cool evening in the New York-Penn
League when he had a three-hit game. “I
kept wearing the shirt and had a good
week,” he explained. “Then the weather
got hot as hell, 85 degrees and muggy, but
I would not take that shirt off. I wore it for
another ten days—catching—and people
thought I was crazy.” Also taking a ritual
to the extreme, Leo Durocher, managing
the Brooklyn Dodgers to a pennant in
1941, is said to have spent three and a half
weeks in the same gray slacks, blue coat,
and knitted blue tie. During a 16-game
winning streak, the 1954 New York Giants
wore the same clothes in each game
and refused to let them be cleaned for fear
that their good fortune might be washed
away with the dirt. Losing often produces
the opposite effect. Several Oakland A’s
players, for example, went out and bought
new street clothes in an attempt to break a
fourteen-game losing streak.
Baseball’s superstitions, like most everything
else, change over time. Many of
the rituals and beliefs of early baseball are
no longer observed. In the 1920s and
1930s sportswriters reported that a player
who tripped en route to the field would often
retrace his steps and carefully walk
over the stumbling block for “insurance.”
A century ago players spent time on and
off the field intently looking for items that
would bring them luck. To find a hairpin
on the street, for example, assured a batter
of hitting safely in that day’s game. Today
few women wear hairpins—a good reason
the belief has died out. To catch sight
of a white horse or a wagon-load of barrels
were also good omens. In 1904 the
manager of the New York Giants, John
McGraw, hired a driver with a team of
white horses to drive past the Polo
Grounds around the time his players were
arriving at the ballpark. He knew that if
his players saw white horses, they’d have
more confidence and that could only help
them during the game. Belief in the power
of white horses survived in a few backwaters
until the 1960s. A gray haired
manager of a team I played for in Drummondville,
Quebec, would drive around
the countryside before important games
and during the playoffs looking for a
white horse. When he was successful, he
would announce it to everyone in the
One belief that appears to have died
out recently is a taboo about crossed bats.
Some of my Latino teammates in the
1960s took it seriously. I can still recall
one Dominican player becoming agitated
when another player tossed a bat from the
batting cage and it landed on top of his bat.
He believed that the top bat might steal
hits from the lower one. In his view, bats
contained a finite number of hits, a sort of
baseball “image of limited good.” It was
once commonly believed that when the
hits in a bat were used up no amount of
good hitting would produce any more.
Hall of Famer Honus Wagner believed
each bat contained only 100 hits. Regardless
of the quality of the bat, he would discard
it after its 100th hit. This belief would
have little relevance today, in the era of
light bats with thin handles—so thin that
the typical modern bat is lucky to survive
a dozen hits without being broken. Other
superstitions about bats do survive, howArticle
32. Baseball Magic
ever. Position players on the Class A
Asheville Tourists, for example, would
not let pitchers touch or swing their bats,
not even to warm up. Poor-hitting players,
as most pitchers are, were said to pollute
or weaken the bats.
The best evidence that players turn to rituals,
taboos, and fetishes to control
chance and uncertainty is found in their
uneven application. They are associated
mainly with pitching and hitting—the activities
with the highest degree of
chance—and not fielding. I met only one
player who had any ritual in connection
with fielding, and he was an error prone
shortstop. Unlike hitting and pitching, a
fielder has almost complete control over
the outcome of his performance. Once a
ball has been hit in his direction, no one
can intervene and ruin his chances of
catching it for an out (except in the unlikely
event of two fielders colliding).
Compared with the pitcher or the hitter,
the fielder has little to worry about. He
knows that, in better than 9.7 times out of
10, he will execute his task flawlessly.
With odds like that there is little need for
Clearly, the rituals of American ballplayers
are not unlike that of the Trobriand
Islanders studied by Malinowski
many years ago.3 In professional baseball,
fielding is the equivalent of the inner
lagoon while hitting and pitching are like
the open sea.
While Malinowski helps us understand
how ballplayers respond to chance
and uncertainty, behavioral psychologist
B. F. Skinner sheds light on why personal
rituals get established in the first place.4
With a few grains of seed Skinner could
get pigeons to do anything he wanted. He
merely waited for the desired behavior
(e.g. pecking) and then rewarded it with
some food. Skinner then decided to see
what would happen if pigeons were rewarded
with food pellets regularly, every
fifteen seconds, regardless of what they
did. He found that the birds associate the
arrival of the food with a particular action,
such as tucking their head under a wing or
walking in clockwise circles. About ten
seconds after the arrival of the last pellet,
a bird would begin doing whatever it associated
with getting the food and keep
doing it until the next pellet arrived. In
short, the pigeons behaved as if their actions
made the food appear. They learned
to associate particular behaviors with the
reward of being given seed.
Ballplayers also associate a reward—
successful performance—with prior behavior.
If a player touches his crucifix and
then gets a hit, he may decide the gesture
was responsible for his good fortune and
touch his crucifix the next time he comes
to the plate. If he gets another hit, the
chances are good that he will touch his
crucifix each time he bats. Unlike pigeons,
however, most ballplayers are
quicker to change their rituals once they
no longer seem to work. Skinner found
that once a pigeon associated one of its actions
with the arrival of food or water,
only sporadic rewards were necessary to
keep the ritual going. One pigeon, believing
that hopping from side to side brought
pellets into its feeding cup, hopped ten
thousand times without a pellet before finally
giving up. But, then, didn’t Wade
Boggs eat chicken before every game,
through slumps and good times, for seventeen
Obviously the rituals and superstitions
of baseball do not make a pitch travel
faster or a batted ball find the gaps between
the fielders, nor do the Trobriand
rituals calm the seas or bring fish. What
both do, however, is give their practitioners
a sense of control, with that added
confidence, at no cost. And we all know
how important that is. If you really believe
eating chicken or hopping over the
foul lines will make you a better hitter, it
probably will.
Malinowski, B. Magic, Science and Religion
and Other Essays (Glencoe, III., 1948).
Mandel, Brett. Minor Players, Major Dreams.
Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska
Press, 1997.
Skinner, B.F. Behavior of Organisms: An
Experimental Analysis (D. Appleton-
Century Co., 1938).
Skinner, B.F. Science and Human Behavior
(New York: Macmillan, 1953).
Stouffer, Samuel. The American Soldier.
New York: J. Wiley, 1965.
Torrez, Danielle Gagnon. High Inside: Memoirs
of a Baseball Wife. New York: G.P.
Putnam’s Sons, 1983.
1. Mandel, Minor Players, Major Dreams,
2. Stouffer, The American Soldier
3. Malinowski, B. Magic, Science and Religion
and Other Essays
4. Skinner, B.F. Behavior of Organisms:
An Experimental Analysis
Department of Anthropology, Union College;
e-mail [email protected]
Revised version of “Superstition and Ritual in American Baseball” from Elysian Fields Quarterly, Vol. 11, No. 3, 1992, pp. 25-36. © September 2000,
McGraw-Hill/Dushkin, with permission of the author, George Gmelch.

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  • Plagiarism free papers
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  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment Help Service Works

1. Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2. Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3. Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4. Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

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