Cloud Database Management System (CDBMS)

COMPUSOFT, An international journal of advanced computer technology, 4 (1), January-2015 (Volume-IV, Issue-I)
Cloud Database Management System (CDBMS)
Snehal B. Shende1
, Prajakta P. Chapke2
1Research Scholar, Department of Computer Science & Engineering, H.V.P.Mandal’s College of Engineering and
Technology, Amravati, Maharashtra 444605 India
2Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Science & Engineering, H.V.P.Mandal’s College of Engineering and
Technology, Amravati, Maharashtra 444605 India
Abstract: Cloud database management system is a distributed database that delivers computing as a service. It is
sharing of web infrastructure for resources, software and information over a network. The cloud is used as a storage
location and database can be accessed and computed from anywhere. The large number of web application makes
the use of distributed storage solution in order to scale up. It enables user to outsource the resource and services to
the third party server. This paper include, the recent trend in cloud service based on database management system
and offering it as one of the services in cloud. The advantages and disadvantages of database as a service will let you
to decide either to use database as a service or not. This paper also will highlight the architecture of cloud based on
database management system.
Keywords: CDBMS, Cloud computing, DBMS, Database Management System
A cloud computing term refer to delivery of
computing resources over the internet, that is, we are
using the services over internet at another location to
store information instead of keeping data on your
own hard-disk or application for your need. To use
software and hardware resources which are managed
by third parties at remote location. A cloud services
reduces the cost and complexity of owning and
operating computer networks and provide scalability,
reliability and efficiency. In cloud computing the
database outsourcing has become very important
component nowadays. To the third parties there is
very growing interest in outsourcing database
management task, which provide task for lower cost
due to economy scale. Outsourcing model reduces
cost for running DBMS.
2.1 DBMS Characteristics
A collection of programs which enables you to store,
modify, and to extract information from a database
called as DBMS. A database management system
(DBMS) is some kind of a software package with
computer programs which control the creation,
maintenance, and use of a database system. So it is a
collection of data records, files and other objects.
DBMS generally supports query languages, which
are high-level programming languages. The
characteristics are:
1) Self-describing nature of a Dbms: Database
System contains the database itself as well as the
descriptions of data structure and constraints (metadata).
2) Support multiple views of data: View is a subset of
the database which is defined and dedicated for
particular users of the system. The Multiple users in
the system might have different views of the system.
3) Data sharing: In data sharing the integration of the
whole data in an organization has the ability to
produce more information from a given amount of
4) Data independence: System data are separated
from the application programs and changes to the
data structure are handled by the DBMS and not
embedded in the program.
5) DBMS provides backup as well as recovery
facilities: If the computer system fails in the complex
update process, the recovery subsystem is restored to
the stage it was in before the process started
6) Restricting unauthorized access: The DBMSs
should provide a security subsystem to create and
control the user accounts. The examples of database
applications are: computerized library systems,
automated teller machines, flight reservation systems,
computerized parts inventory systems.
2.2 Cloud Characteristics
Cloud computing is a sharing of resources to achieve
coherence and economies of scale, similar to a utility
COMPUSOFT, An international journal of advanced computer technology, 4 (1), January-2015 (Volume-IV, Issue-I)
over a network. The cloud service also focuses on
maximizing the effectiveness of the shared resources.
The cloud resources are usually shared by multiple
users as well as dynamically reallocated per demand.
The cloud characteristics are:
1) On-demand self-service: A consumer can gain
computing capabilities, such as server time and
network storage, as needed automatically without
requiring human interaction with each service’s
2) Measured service: The cloud systems
automatically control and optimize resource use by
leveraging a metering capability at some level of
abstraction appropriate to the type of service. The
resource usage are managed, controlled and reported,
providing transparency for both the provider and
consumer of the utilized service.
3) Resource pooling capability: The computing
resources are pooled to serve multiple consumers
using a multi-tenant model, with different physical
and virtual resources dynamically assigned and then
reassigned according to consumer demand.
4) Broad network access: The capabilities are
available over the network and are accessed through
standard mechanisms that promote used by
heterogeneous thin or thick client platforms (e.g.,
mobile phones, laptops, and PDAs).
5) Rapid elasticity: The cloud is flexible and scalable
to suit your immediate business needs. You can
easily remove users, software features, and other
resources also.
2.3 CDBMSs
A cloud DBMS (CDBMS) is distributed database that
delivers computing as a service instead of product,
which allow sharing of resources and information
between multiple devices over internet. CDBMS
provide managed backup, restore and automated
scheduling you may also able to pay little or nothing
for unused time. One of the known example of this is
SaaS (software as a service), which is an application
that delivers through the browser to customers. SaaS
also handle all software upgrades and make them
promptly. A cloud database management system is a
database that typically runs on a cloud computing
platform, such as Amazon EC2, GoGrid, Salesforce
and Rackspace. There are two methods to run a
database on the cloud.
1) Virtual machine: A cloud platforms allow users to
purchase virtual machine instances for a limited time
and also possible to run a database on these virtual
machines. The users uses their own machine image
with a database installed on it as well as use readymade machine images that already include an
optimized installation of a database. For example, an
Oracle provides ready-made machine image which
have an installation of Oracle Database 11g
Enterprise Edition on Amazon EC2.
2) Database as a service: Some of the cloud platforms
offer options for using a database as a service but
without physically launching a virtual machine
instance for the database and this configuration. They
do not have to install and maintain the database on
their own. The provider which provides database
service takes responsibility for installing and
maintaining the database also the application owners
pay according to their use. For example, Amazon
Web Services provides three database services as part
of its cloud service, an SQL-based database service
with a MySQL interface.
The DBMS is a software that user use to create,
delete and maintain a database. Due to introduction
of cloud computing DBMS has emerged into a new
type of a service having its own benefit. A cloud
database is a database that involves variety of
designing, developing of hardware and software. It is
a system in which variety of computers are connected
through network such as internet. Traditional DBMS
are not well versed to deal with the growing demands
of cloud computing. If DBMS is used as service for a
larger package, it would likely be effective in its
duties and cheaper in long run. The concept of the
DBMS has been around since the beginning of
electronic computing. Database management systems
are one of the oldest integral components of
computing, essentially making it possible and easy to
scan, retrieve and organize data on hard drives and
networks. All DBMS, whether traditional or cloudbased, act as communicators between the operating
system and the database. How is cloud dbms different
from traditional dbms? Cloud based dbms works on
large volume of data that would exhaust a classical
dbms. However inspite of being scalable cloud dbms
are still somewhat lacking to process extreme large
data. This is expected to be dealt in the coming years.
Currently the cloud dbms are used for testing and
development of new cloud processes and application.
Cloud DBMS combines data structures and the data
query language and utilize all of dbms components or
may devise new strategies that combine one or more
elements. Most of the organizations are exploring
their choice of working on cloud dbms instead of
existing service. This strategy saves time spent on
developing cloud DBMS’s as well as enhances their
overall efficiency, since traditional modeling
languages are more than adequate for handling data.
Despite the benefits of cloud- based DBMS, many
people still prefers existing system. This is most
likely due to the various security issues that have yet
to be dealt with. These security issues involve the
fact that cloud DBMS are hard to monitor since they
often span across multiple hardware servers and
contains variety of data and large amount of
information is entered. Security becomes a serious
COMPUSOFT, An international journal of advanced computer technology, 4 (1), January-2015 (Volume-IV, Issue-I)
issue with cloud DBMS because most of the services
are outsourced to the third party, which makes it
difficult to maintain the data security. There is
however proposed method for dealing with these
issues. The security issues include identity
management, computing resources, application
security, privacy, legal issues. A network security
agent may be unable to handle extremely large and
dense volumes of activity / traffic in case of
deployment of an autonomous network agent, which
rigorously monitor all activities related to database
access and computations. Arguably, the best solution
for dealing with security issues is to employ
continuous database auditing to deal with security.
This will involves setting up a system that will
continuously record, analyze and report on all
activities regarding database access, specifically
suspicious database access. All record information
regarding these activities is logged and stored in an
extremely remote and secure location with alerts
being sent out to cloud agent/management in the
critical situations. This will provide the in charge of
security with the relevant logs information necessary
to determine who is responsible, where the suspicious
person is located as well as the specifics of their
machine / hardware and diagnose it. While the
complete deployment of a dedicated and thorough
cloud DBMS hasn’t occurred yet, it is under the
continuous development. The emergence of a new
proposed solution for database management as a
cloud service models will open the door to a new era
of cloud computing. Many of the cloud databases are
developed to run on a cluster of hundreds to
thousands of nodes, and are capable of growing and
serving data ranging from hundreds of terabytes to
petabytes. Compared with classical relational
database server, cloud databases may offer less
querying capability and often weaker consistency
guarantees, but it provide scalability and elasticity.
Unlike traditional database, cloud database data is
stored on dynamic server instead of a dedicated
4. Why DBMS in cloud?
Database Management Systems as a cloud service are
designed to run as a scalable, elastic service available
on a cloud platform. Cloud based DBMS are
structured only as a cloud offering and are not
relational. For example, SQL Azure built by
Microsoft is fully relational DBMS, while SQL
services by Microsoft, Amazon’s simple-db and
Google’s Big Table solution are distributed database
cluster and have different persistence models. Cloud
based DBMS services are dynamic and have
distributed environment with elastic resources
allocation, for use in simple as well as complex
transactions. Most of the currently available DBMS
engines will run on cloud infrastructure, but are not
specifically structured to take advantage of the cloud.
This difference is the reason for the change in name
from “DBMS in the Cloud” to “cloud service based
on DBMS”; running on cloud infrastructure does not
define a cloud service based on DBMS. All the
cloud DBMS that are currently available are
relatively new. Microsoft’s SQL azure, the only fully
relational DBMS available, began its full production
in 2012 and still has some size limitations; Microsoft
plans to reduce these restrictions, and eventually lift.
All the cloud DBMS that are currently available are
relatively new. Microsoft’s SQL azure, the only fully
relational DBMS available, began its full production
in 2012 and still has some size limitations; Microsoft
plans to reduce these restrictions, and eventually lift.
Now a day, DBMS as a cloud service are used
primarily for development and testing of
applications- where database sizes are small and
issues of security and collocation with multiple
people are not concern. One big advantages of cloud
DBMS is its elasticity: the less you use, the less you
pay; the more you use, the more you pay. Elasticity is
a dynamic property that gives permission for a
system scale to be increased on demand. Initially,
cloud DBMSs will benefit for vendors desiring a less
expensive platform for development. As cloud
infrastructure with DBMS gains maturity especially
in scalability, elasticity, reliability and security.
Cloud infrastructure is used for implementations in
short-term projects and rapid development platforms
will show marked reductions in cost, compared with
implementations within the IT industry. This
advantages reinforced by the ability to set up a cloud
DBMS environment without the use of expensive IT
personnel. The speed of setup will be a primary
driver to rapid the deployment of systems without the
usual requirements and planning necessary for IT
projects within the IT industry. This will also
minimize the necessity for IT to respond to short
notice and short duration projects, reducing overall
costs and saving time in IT department. Data
management applications are potential candidates for
deployment in the cloud. This is due to on premises
enterprise database management system typically
comes with a large, sometimes restrictive up-front
cost, both in software and hardware. For many small
vendors and companies (especially for start-ups and
medium-sized businesses), the pay as-you-go cloud
computing project, along with having someone else
maintaining the hardware. Due to the rapidincreasing need for more analysis over more data in
today’s corporate world, along with an architectural
match that is currently available deployment options,
we conclude that mostly read analytical data
management applications are better suited for
deployment in the cloud than transactional data
management applications. We thus conclude a
research agenda for large scale analysis of data in the
COMPUSOFT, An international journal of advanced computer technology, 4 (1), January-2015 (Volume-IV, Issue-I)
cloud infrastructure, showing why currently available
systems are not ideally-suited for cloud deployment,
and arguing that there is a need to design a new
DBMS, architected specifically for cloud computing
Above figure is a DBMS in Cloud Architecture, the
first layer contains the storage layer, followed by
databases layer and the upper layer is application
layer. It provides efficient data access with a better
distribution of values for the data. It stores frequently
used SQL statements in memory in terms of
performance and avoids the need for time-consuming
recompilation at run-time. At the storage layer data is
encrypted when stored in the database or backed up
with no need of programming to encrypt and decrypt
the database .The application layer produces a
detailed report on each step used for data access and
allows to accurately implement the performance
The cloud computing has given a new dimension to
IT industry and the companies are looking to adopt
cloud services rather than investing a huge money in
getting the infrastructure for own database system.
This advent in computing and cloud computing, the
cloud database is also picking up its pace in making
its permanent place in IT world. There are a number
of advantages that make it preferable and adoptable
by a huge number of companies for its matchless
services in a very cost saving manner. If the
companies do not get the services of a cloud
database, then they will have to invest huge money
for setting up their own data centers and then hiring
separate staff to manage and take care of all the data
center processes. Here are few advantages of
adopting cloud database.
I. The technology has changed the way of business,
and now the people use to shop over the internet and
they rely on shopping for saving their time. This
change in the business has let the companies think
about the fastest way they can do business over the
internet. There was a time when software needed to
be installed to access the database of the company but
now a day the employees even don’t have time to
install software on their computer rather they prefer
to use a ready to available resources. They prefer to
use the cloud database so that they can access the
information stored in their database without
wasting any time.
II. The other advantage of using a cloud database is
that it saves a lot of money. The company does not
need to invest money in setting up their own data
centers and then managing it by hiring extra staff for
this purpose. Moreover, after setting up a data center,
the company will need to buy the softwares as well
and their maintenance is also required.
III. The cloud database service providers of DBaaS
providers also make the customer free from the
tensions of making any immediate changes in the
database. On the other hand, the cloud database
providers also offer scalability on the peak times that
does not let the performance of the company go
IV. Cloud computing has given the freedom to access
the information from anywhere without any
boundaries of getting to your personal computer at
home. This makes it a very powerful technology and
the companies prefer it as the customers, employees
or the authorities of the companies can get the
formation they want from anywhere at any time.
V. There are many other benefits of cloud database as
well, that makes it the best option available to the
larger organizations and companies who need to hold
terabytes of data. The cloud database makes the
availability of data possible anytime from anywhere.
As there are advantages of using a cloud database,
there are disadvantages as well. The disadvantages
can be alarming sometimes for the companies.
I. The companies have to pay for the usage of the
cloud database as per decided. Every time the data is
transferred from the database, the company will have
to pay each time. If the traffic of the company for
transferring data with the database is high then the
company may be paying than its expectations.
II. The other disadvantage of using a cloud database
is that, we do not have a full control over the server
where our database is being held. We do not have the
control over the softwares installed on those
computers. You cannot do anything to make the
COMPUSOFT, An international journal of advanced computer technology, 4 (1), January-2015 (Volume-IV, Issue-I)
security of cloud database strong. The client will
have to rely on the provider only. The security issues
can be a big problem for the companies.
III. The data you have hosted on the cloud database is
totally dependent on the service provider. The data
and information about a company are the most
important asset for the organization. The
organizations cannot afford to lose its information
about its customers and company policies. If the
information is given in the wrong hands then the
company or the organization may face heavy losses.
IV. As there are masses of data hosted on the cloud
database so it is very difficult to transfer that data to
your computer. For this purpose, internet speed must
be high. On the other hand, the traditional database
can transfer data at a very high speed.
V. If the client wants to switch database from one
service provider to new one, then he may face
problems. The reason is that each service provides
use their own methods and techniques for storing
data. The organization must be very careful about the
selection of DBaaS provider.
VI. In case of cloud database, the data is to be fetched
via internet, so if the server is down, then it may
cause inability to access the data from the server.
This causes huge losses when the information is not
available when needed.
As suggested in this paper clouds can be used with
distributed database for handling large volume of
data. It enhances reliability, elasticity, availability,
scalability and all these capabilities are provided at
low cost with enhanced performance compared to the
dedicated infrastructure. Cloud services based on
DBMS are gaining acceptance from vendors desiring
low cost of developmental platform. It present the
idea of cloud service based on DBMS. It proposed
architecture of cloud based on database management
system. There are advantages and disadvantages as
well; however the adoption the cloud database has
proven that the advantages are more than the
SERVICE”, IJDMS, Vol.5, No.2, April 2013,Department of
Computing, Macquarie University Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia.
[2] Monica Kadam1, Pooja Jidge2, Shubhangi Tambe3, Ekta
Tayade4, Vrunda Bhusari5,”Cloud Database Management System
(CDBMS)”,IJSAE,vol. 3, 2014,ISSN : 2321-7545.
1,2,3,4,5Department of Computer Engineering University of pune,
[3] YatharthBhatnagar, SarweshSethiya, SiddharthJain,”DBMS as
a Cloud Service”, IJCSIT, Vol. 5 (3), 2014, ISSN : 0975-9646,
Department of Computer Science Engineering, Acropolis Institute
of Technology& Research, Indore, India.
[4] Yvette E. Gelogo1 and Sunguk Lee2,”Database Management
System as a Cloud Service”,IJFGCN, Vol. 5, No.2, June,
2012,1Society of Science and Engineering Research
Support,Korea and 2Research Institute of Industrial Science and
TechnologyPohang, Gyeongbuk,Korea.

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