Development of Public Administration
Development of Public Administration as an Academic Discipline -As an activity of government, public administration is as old as organized society/ government since people have engaged in the management of public programs for thousands of years. – As an academic discipline or a body of knowledge, public administration is a relatively a young field of study. It is regarded as one of the newest disciplines of the social sciences. -Public administration as an academic discipline originated/emerged in the USA and the US scholars continue to enrich it even today. It was the seminal essay entitled ‘The Study of Public Administration’ published in the ‘Political Science Quarterly’ in 1887, written by Woodrow Wilson that is considered to be its symbolic beginning of public administration as a field of study. It also stimulated interests and stressed need for the systematic study of public administration in the US context. – It has passed several phases and many ups and downs since its symbolic beginning. Public administration as an academic discipline developed over time involves five major periods/paradigms (Nicolas Henry has suggested six paradigms in regard to the emergence of public administration as an academic discipline). These paradigms often overlap. Phases /paradigms of evolution: 1. Politics- administration dichotomy (1887 – 1926) 2. The principles of administration (1927- 1937) (The period 1938-1950 stood a challenge and reaction to challenge) 3. Public administration as political science (1950-1970) 4. Public administration as management (1956-1970) 5. Public administration as public administration (1971 onward) 1. Politics-administration dichotomy The first stage of the development/evolution of public administration as an academic discipline begun with the Woodrow Wilson’s seminal essay published in 1887. It is regarded as the most distinguished essay in the history of American public administration. In the essay, Wilson regarded administration as distinct from politics. So he stressed the need for a separate study of administration. According to Wilson, ‘law making or farming a constitution is the concern of politics, while administration is concerned with the implementation of a constitution and it is getting harder to run a constitution than to farm one.’
Frank J. Goodnow (Politics and Administration -1900) further explored the Wilsonian doctrine of politics-administration dichotomy. He identified and distinguished the two functions of the government: politics and administration. According to him, politics has to do with policies or expression of the state will. Administration has to do with the execution of these policies. He further defined/identified the locations of two functions: the legislative and the higher authority of government where major policies are made (location of politics) and the location
of administration was identified as the executive arm of government i.e. the government bureaucracy. Leonard D. White (Introduction to the Study of Public Administration -1926) dealt with administration comprehensively and systematically in government of the period. His premises were that politics and administration should be kept separate and efficiency and economy should be the concerns of administration. In the first paradigm: Strengthened the notion of the politics-administration dichotomy; Public administration appeared as a distinct field of study; It received its first serious attention from American Universities and scholars. This period is characterized as the lack of clear boundaries of public administration. 2. Principles of Administration W.F. Willoughby (The Principles of Public Administration -1927) inaugurated a new principle approach in the development of public administration. According to Willoughby, there are certain principles of administration which can be drawn through scientific research and study of the phenomenon of administration. An administrator would be expert in his/her work if he/she learn how to apply these principles. The principle approach advocated by Willoughby was further elaborated/described by other scholars: Henry Fayol, Mary Parker Follet and Luther H. Gulick and Lyndal Urwick. Most notably, Gulick and Urwick (Paper on the Science of Administration -1937) coined the acronym POSDCORB to promote principles of administration. Their work was an attempt to discover administrative principles of general applicability and to develop a value free science of public administration based on such principles. In this second phase, scholars developed principles of administration such as division of work, unity of command, coordination, scalar principle, span of control, etc. The thrusts of this period were that there were certain principles of administration of general applicability and a body of knowledge was needed to prescribe them in an administrative process.
The Challenge and Reaction to the Challenge (1938-1950): The period 1938 -47 appeared as one of the challenges against the principles of administration. Chester Irving Bernard’s ‘The Functions of the Executive (1938) didn’t uphold the views of the scholars of second paradigm. Similarly, Herbert Simon’s article ‘The Proverbs of Administration (1946) and Administrative Behaviour (1947) raised a question mark on the acceptability and applicability of the principles of administration. He labeled /termed principles of administration as mere proverbs. He also rejected the doctrine of politics-administration dichotomy and regarded decision making as the heart of administration. Moreover, Robert Dahl’s essay entitled ‘The Science of Public Administration: Three Problems’ (1947) challenged the claim made by the principle of public administration. He opposed the traditional notions of public administration.
In the 1940s two directions/ dominant views appeared in the mainstream of public administration. a. politics and administration can’t be separated practically. b. principles of administration cannot be applied consistently. [This period created a challenge to the previous notion of politics-administration dichotomy and general applicability of administrative principles.] Simon also revived previous foundation of public administration by offering an alternative view. According to him, there should be two kinds of public administration: a pure science of administration based on social psychology (social sciences provide the basis for understanding administrative behavior) and prescription for public policy (normative in its emphasis). 3. Public administration as political science This period has been marked by the crisis of identity for public administration and the future of public administration appeared uncertain. Many scholars in public administration sought their linkages with political science. So they responded to the crisis of identity by returning to the field of the mother discipline i.e. political science. As a result of growing concerns and attitudes towards political science in the late 1940s, the field of public administration was dominated by political science for about two decades. Despite substantial attempts made by scholars in public administration to develop a field/discipline of their own, leading scholars in political science of this period become successful to dominate the field of public administration under political science. Dwight Waldo (The Administrative State-1948) urged the recognition of public administration within the context of a democratic governmental process and introduced the concept of administrative politics. Similarly, Paul H. Appleby (Policy and Administration -1949) argued that public administration should be thought of as a government in direction action and called for the reconciliation of policies and administration. This third phase was largely an exercise of reestablishing the linkages between public administration and political science. Public administration was regarded as an emphasis of political science, an area of political science as well as a synonym of political science. During this period, political science not only let public administration separate itself from it but also curb its fostering and encouraging growth and development within its own field. 4. Public administration as management/administrative science
This paradigm occurred roughly concurrently with the previous paradigm (paradigm 3) in time. However, it didn’t garner favor that political science received. Owing to undisguised contempt being exhibited by political scientists and political science departments, scholars in public administration began searching for an alternative way. They regarded management /administrative science as a viable alternative for its survival. Since the mid 1950s, a new view/idea appeared (with the publication of ‘Administrative Science Quarterly’) that private, public and nonprofit administration was a false distinction. This new intellectual movement
and its premises had a great impact on the curricula of universities. Thus, the idea of generic management appeared as a new unified epistemology in the study of institutions/ organizations whether public, private or nonprofit. This paradigm seemed to be as the second paradigm i.e. the principles of administration since focus had been given on often highly sophisticated techniques but institutional settings to apply those techniques were not identified. In both paradigms (political science and management) public administration as an identifiable field of study began a long downhill spiral and it lost its uniqueness and identity. Despite its crisis of identify, public administration was sowing the seeds for its renaissance. As a result, at the end of the third and fourth paradigm public administration revived its identity unconsciously in both academic and professional forms. – The curricula of public policy appeared in the top academic institutions and universities in the political science departments. However, the programs were interdisciplinary in nature and were often dominated by scholars in public administration. – The new public administration movement seemed to be a call for the independence of public administration from both political science and management. These movements had an overwhelming influence on public administration to reconsider its traditional ties with both political science and management and to develop its own independent field of study. 5. Public administration as public administration After 1970, public administration has emerged as an autonomous and a separate academic field of study with an enriched vision by escaping from the previous uncertainty and crisis of identity. A large numbers of universities in the USA have been offer MPA programs. Its separation from the field of political science and management become real. Thus, this paradigm refers to public administration as separate body of knowledge and can be characterized as a strong connection between the students, academic and practitioners to foster its academic heritage. Since its separation, it has been able to enrich its identity gradually across the globe. The numbers of universities, departments, colleges, and institutions of public administration and public policy have been increasing. Similarly, the public administration program that have been taught and researched within the political science departments, department of business administration and other kinds of schools have declined in the recent years. Today, a large numbers of universities, departments and schools across the globe offer public administration programs and their programs have got a higher level of accreditation. The public administration program is also taught in the joint departments of political science, management and public administration. Even today, United States has remained a single most important source of literature in the field of public administration.

Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Development of Public Administration
Just from $9/Page
Order Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment Help Service Works

1. Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2. Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3. Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4. Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essay GET A PERFECT SCORE!!! smile and order essay Buy Custom Essay

Place your order
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

Read more

Free-revision policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

Read more

Privacy policy

Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

Read more

Fair-cooperation guarantee

By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

Read more
error: Content is protected !!
Open chat
Need assignment help? You can contact our live agent via WhatsApp using +1 718 717 2861

Feel free to ask questions, clarifications, or discounts available when placing an order.
  +1 718 717 2861           + 44 161 818 7126           [email protected]
  +1 718 717 2861         [email protected]