COLLEGE OF HEALTH SCIENCES
HSC 210 Epidemiology & Population Health AY2020-21
Assessment Type: Assignment 2
Weighting: 10 %
Conditions of Assessment: Individual work only Out of class preparation
Grade: out of 10
Question 1- Identify the study type/ design for the below cases. Case 1 (2 points):
Anemia is a major public health problem in Thailand with the estimate prevalence of 25 percent. The last survey of the prevalence of anemia was done in 1979, so another survey was performed to observe the trend of change in the prevalence of anemia in Khon Kaen. A community survey was conducted by multistage random sampling in a population aged 30- 65 years in 13 villages in Amphoe Phon. The mean hematocrit level was 40.1 +/- 5.1 per cent (42.8 +/- 4.6% in males, 38.1 +/- 4.5% in females). The prevalence of anemia (Hct < 39% in males, < 36% in females) was 22.2 per cent (16.4% in males, 26.4% in females). The mean level of hematocrit of patients admitted for elective surgery in Srinagarind Hospital was 38.6 +/- 5.5 per cent which was significantly lower than in the rural area (P < 0.001) and the prevalence of anemia was 25.9 per cent. The prevalence of anemia increased with age and decreased with high education and body mass index. Compared to the data in 1979, the prevalence in males increased from 13.9 to 16.4 per cent and from 23.3 to 26.4 per cent in females. The prevalence of anemia in Khon Kaen is still high and has increased compared to the data in 1979, and thus, remains a major public health problem.
Study type and design: Case 2 (2 points):
We are interested to know the prevalence of vitiligo in a village. We designed a population- based survey to assess the prevalence of this condition. We sent it to all the houses that were supposed to be included in the study and examined the population. The total sample surveyed was 5686. Of these, we found that 98 individuals have vitiligo. Thus, the prevalence of vitiligo in this community is: Prevalence = 98/5686 or 17.23/1000 population.
Study type and design:
Case 3 (2 points):
In 1955, a study about HIV conducted in University of Ottawa reported that the prevalence of HIV in male sex workers was 33%. They also found that male-to-
female transgendered people were significantly more likely to be HIV-infected compared with males (odds ratio [OR]: 3.5, 95% confidence intervals: 1.0, 11.7). Similarly, they found that HIV prevalence was higher among drug addicts compared with those in non addicts (40% vs. 7%, P = 0.02).
Study type and design: Case 4 (2 points)
In Denmark and Sweden, 3055 Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) patients and 3187 matched control subjects were asked about their history
of autoimmune and chronic inflammatory disorders, markers of severity, and treatment. Logistic regression with adjustment for study matching factors was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for NHL overall and for NHL subtypes. Risks of all NHL were increased in association with rheumatoid arthritis (OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.1 to 1.9), primary Sjögren syndrome (OR = 6.1, 95% CI = 1.4 to 27), systemic lupus erythematosus (OR = 4.6, 95% CI = 1.0 to 22), and celiac disease (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.0 to 4.8).
Study type and design:
Question 2-Why is the information derived from cohort studies often given greater weight than information derived from case-control studies? (2 points)
The cohort studies compare health states in people with health determinant versus people without health determinant from the same population. The cohort studies normally follow people up over time. These studies look after the association between the disease (or other outcome of interest) and possible cause of the disease by comparing the incidence of the disease in those exposed to the possible cause and the incidence of the disease in those not exposed. However, in the case-control studies the researchers cannot determine causality and measurements about exposure to the determinant are taken after the health outcome occurs which result in prone of bias.
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