Global Journal of Human Resource Management

Global Journal of Human Resource Management
Vol.2, No.3, pp. 45-58, September 2014
Published by European Centre for Research Training and Development UK (
ISSN 2053-5686(Print), ISSN 2053-5694(Online)
Goddy Osa Igbaekemen,
Department of Sociology, Nigeria Police Academy, Wudil, Kano State, Nigeria
ABSTRACT: This article examines that in every organization, the aim of every manager is to
see that productivity is enhanced and efficiency attained. The means of achieving this goal
hinges on many factors but for the purpose of this study we will look into capacity building as
a tool for increase in productivity in the public sector organisation in Nigeria. It cannot be
over emphasized in these modern management system where there are changes in information
system and globalization. This trend has made the public sector organizations realize the very
importance of human capital development these days. The origin of training and staff
development in Nigeria dated back to 1970. Before this time, training and development had
been going on in Nigeria without notice. It has brought to limelight at the 14th Annual General
Meeting of Nigeria Employer Consultative Association (NECA) in December, 1970. When
Chief Anthony Enahoro, the then federal commissioner for labour and productivity commented
on the importance of role of employers in training their employees.
KEYWORD: Training, Employee Productivity, Management, Development, Efficiency and
Public Sector
Training is concerned with improving knowledge and improving skills in relation to a job or
occupation. Therefore, training is key element of improving employees performance which
leads to increase in production i.e. employee productivity. According to Cole (1886) training
increases the level of individual and organizational competence. Employee training is essential
if people are to continue to be efficient member of an organization. Training should begin as
soon as new employee joins an organization. It can take turn of:
– General induction programme which introduce the members of the staff to the organization its
facilities, its people, rules and regulations.
– Coaching a means of developing people within an organization in order that they perform
effectively and reach their potential.
– Counseling it main purpose is to offer advice and assistance to employees with personal
problems, stemming either from their non-work circumstances or from relationship issues in
the work place.
– Succession simply planning the availability of internal candidates for promotion into key
– Mentoring is the process of using specially selected and trained individuals to provide guidance
and advice which will help to develop the careers of the protégés allocated to them.

It is concerned with acquiring knowledge, skill and techniques in relation to a job. It is based
on a need analysis derived from a comparison of actual production of employee in the
attainment of organizational goals. Human capital is intangible and elusive and cannot be
Global Journal of Human Resource Management
Vol.2, No.3, pp. 45-58, September 2014
Published by European Centre for Research Training and Development UK (
ISSN 2053-5686(Print), ISSN 2053-5694(Online)
managed the way organizations manage jobs, products and technologies. One of the reasons
for this is that the employees, not the organisation, own their own human capital. If valued
employees’ leaves a company they take their human capital with them, and their human capital
with them, and any investment. The company has made in training and develop those people
is lost. To build human capital in organizations, managers must continue to develop superior
knowledge, skills and experience within their workforce, staffing programmes focus on
identifying, recruiting and hiring the best and the brightest talent available. Training
programmes complement these staffing practices to provides skills enhancement, particularly
in areas that cannot be transferred to another company if an employee should leave in addition,
employees need opportunities for development on the job.
The most highly valued intelligence tends to be associated with competencies and capabilities
that are learned from experience and not easily taught. Consequently, managers have to do a
good job of providing developmental assignments to employees and making certain that job
duties and requirements are flexible enough to allow for growth and learning.The Idea that
organization compete through people highlights the facts that success increasingly depends on
an organization’s ability to manage human capital. The term human capital describe the value
of knowledge, skills and capabilities. However, it has tremendous impact on an organization’s
performance .Managing human capital is one of the most difficult tasks and has to be taken
carefully because the relative relevant of human capital to the overall performance of
organization cannot be overemphasized. The success or failure of any organization is ultimately
predicted on the quality of its workforce. It is obvious that human capital commitment, support
and determination are the most veritable means of sustainable productivity.
Therefore, the development of the employees in any organization must not be neglected. Any
organization that is continuity should invest not only on technology but also in the development
and training of it workforce. It is pertinent to acknowledge the fact that people are unique
because they have diverse needs, attitude, ambition, level of knowledge and skills as well as
potentials for growth and development. The most critical issue confronting any organization is
how to get staff apt to work in a constructive sense, in a manner that will achieve desired results
and thus give the worker a sense of fulfilment and satisfaction – hence, training and employee
development. Investment on human capital development is a wise one. Employees who have
not received adequate training before being assigned with responsibilities may lack the
necessary confidence with which to carry out the jobs. Therefore, employee with good training
will have the experience to perform the tasks that are required of him/her in an effective
manner. The need for staff development has become inevitable in a dynamic world of which
Nigeria is part. The business environment, in which we find ourselves are dynamic and volatile
with the sophistication of machineries and equipment, development of new methods and more
efficient and effective ways of doing things and of new services. Every organization needs to
have well-trained and experienced employee to perform their duties.
It is therefore necessary to raise the skill levels and increase the versatility and adaptability of
employees. Human capital development is therefore a process that updates old skills and
develop new ones. More importantly,, as job become more complex, the importance of
employee development has greatly increased.For any organization to achieve its objective
comes the need to have a well-focused programme of its employees in order to improve their
performance. Once an organization has employed those it considered qualified, suitable and
Global Journal of Human Resource Management
Vol.2, No.3, pp. 45-58, September 2014
Published by European Centre for Research Training and Development UK (
ISSN 2053-5686(Print), ISSN 2053-5694(Online)
competent to perform those jobs for which they were hired, it must then set up machinery for
an effective human capital development programmes of the newly employed staff.
Management gains by improve organizational productivity and the workers gain by receiving
the satisfaction and rewards that come from advancement. Hence, a worker’s morale is
improved when he gains confidence in performing his job. The impact of human capital
development on employees’ productivity in the organization cannot be under-emphasized. This
is, because the extent to which an organization succeeds or fails largely depends on the type
and level of training its human capital receives.
French and Seward (1980) looked at training as the systematic development and improvement
of an industrial ability to perform specific task or job. In consonance to his postulation, John
Hinrichs (1976) sees training as “where organization and individual development can merge,
where personal and corporate growth can occur simultaneously”. He however stated further
that effective training programmes must demonstrably contribute to the satisfaction of both the
trainee’s personal goals as well as the organizations goals.
According to Obisi (1996), training is a process or procedure through which the skills, talent
and knowledge of an employee is enhanced and increased. In other words, a successful training
programme must contribute to the growth and development of the competencies and activation
of employees at all levels Training affects attitude formation in a way that the employees’
attitude is shaped with a view to getting their support and partnership in the enterprise. A staff
trained appreciates the fact that the organization values his contribution to the sustenance of
the enterprise. He feels proud and he is committed to the goals of the organization.
Yesufu (1982) further believes that no matter how automated enterprise may be, optimum
productivity depends on the effectiveness of the workforce. Nwachukwu (1988) puts it that
training is an organizational effort aimed at helping an employee to acquire basic skills required
for the efficient execution of functions he was employed for. He explained that employees’
productivity is a function of ability, will and determination. In his own assertion, Armstrong
Michael (1984) defines training as the systematic development of the knowledge; skill and
attitude required by an individual to adequately perform a given task or job. Beach (1980) sees
training as the organized procedure by which people learn knowledge and procedure for a
definite purpose. The purpose of training is to achieve a change in the behaviour of the trainee.
Bite and Ramsey equally defined training as a programme designed to provide the knowledge,
attitude or job skills that will help employees perform their present jobs. They claim that
training\has immediate application on the job.
Ubeku (1980) has defined management training as the process c development of management
skills, knowledge and attitude through instructions, demonstrations, practice and planned
experience to meet the present and future needs of the business. Hackett (1979) viewed the
definition of development as a course of action designed to enable the individual realize his
potential for growth in the organization. In her opinion, it refers to the future rather than the
present .job. According to Menace (1980), development is a long time process and it is mostly
informal while training is formal and a short time process. Development is mostly used on
Global Journal of Human Resource Management
Vol.2, No.3, pp. 45-58, September 2014
Published by European Centre for Research Training and Development UK (
ISSN 2053-5686(Print), ISSN 2053-5694(Online)
managers and management staff for their improvement and advancement, which prepares them
for the task of accepting greater responsibilities.
Koontz and Weihrich (1985) asserts that training pertains to the programmes that facilitates the
learning process while development is viewed as a systematic, integrated and planned approach
to improving the effectiveness of groups of people in an organization. However, training and
development is a combination of many things aimed at increasing the ability of the individuals
and groups to contribute to the achievement of organizational goals. An important key to be
taken note of in these definitions is the emphasis on the element of planning.
Onuoha (1993) opines concerning management training and development. Those three terms
are often interchangeable used when formulating training and development programmes for
employee it is important to distinguish them because differences between these term are
somehow subtle. These terms are management education, management training and
management development.
Statement of Problem
It has been usually agreed that the purpose of researching is to identify a problem and provide
adequate solution to such particular problem confronting the organization. This research
therefore is expected to probe the likely problem associated with impact of human capital
development and provide solution to such problem.Some of the problems this research will
solve include the following.
1. The procedure through which the organization determine capacity building development needs
of the employees.
2. Identifying the right method of capacity building development.
3. Identifying capacity building development as a tool for increasing employee productivity.
4. Identifying how capacity building development will translate to the overall objectives of the
Objective of the Study
This research will examine and explore:
1. The role of capacity building AS A TOOL FOR PUBLIC SECTOR OGANIZATION
2. The impact of capacity building programmes on workers behaviour and effectiveness at work.
3. To determine employees’ participation in decision making and its impact on productivity.
4. To make recommendation on how to improve capacity building programme for the staff.
Research Hypothesis
(a) H1: There is a relationship between capacity building and organizational productivity.
H0: There is no relationship between capacity building and organizational productivity.
(b) H1: Employees development contributes positively to the overall organizational
H0: Employees development does not contribute positively to the overall organizational
(c) H1 There is a relationship between adequate

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