How Spartan was life in Sparta

Section 1 Spartan Mirage? How “Spartan” was life in Sparta?


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“This is Sparta!” Leonidas bellows in the movie 300. But what was Sparta really? Popular movies and games have perpetuated a certain image of the Spartan as a military hero, a martyr for his city and a warrior trained from infancy to fight to the last man. But they are not alone in creating what historians of Sparta call the “Spartan mirage.” That fanciful image of a city of warriors unique in world history, self-sacrificing and brave beyond normal human behavior, was crafted long before the modern day in literature and artwork stretching back to the time of the Spartans themselves. The very word “Spartan” has come today to mean spare, without luxury or comfort, harsh and grueling. This image has even colored the traditional narratives of Sparta in textbooks. These narratives often present a tale of two cities, Sparta and Athens, with the purpose of comparing what are presented as two polar extremes in the Greek world. Athens in the fifth century is idealized as the intellectual and political wellspring of Western civilization—a democratic state enjoying a golden age of arts, philosophy, theater, literature and architecture. Meanwhile, Sparta is pictured as its primitive antithesis, an authoritarian state focused exclusively on military training and preparation for war with no interest in intellectual pursuits or innovation in government. In this narrative, Sparta’s militarist character is unique in the Greek world, the result of their precarious social order. The minority Spartan citizens in the region of Laconia ruled over a subservient population of helots including the people of neighboring Messenia, who provided the agricultural and household labor. While this freed the Spartans to devote themselves to other pursuits, the threat of a helot rebellion, according to the narrative, also forced the Spartan citizens to spend this free time honing their skill in war. With this constant threat, all aspects of life necessarily revolved around military preparation, from raising children, education, and the treatment of women, to rules on wealth, meals, and family living arrangements. The primary sources from Spartans like the poet Tyrtaios and from Greek observers like Herodotus and Xenophon and from later Roman historians like Plutarch all seem to verify this image of Sparta. And yet, scholars today have concluded that this image is part of a long-standing mirage that presents a fabrication rather than the reality of life in Sparta. Recent scholarship by historians challenges the portrayal of Sparta as more military camp than civil society and separates sources on its military preparation from our picture of the society and its institutions as a whole. Scholars are even challenging the primary sources on Sparta, calling attention to the bias of many of the contemporary authors whose Athenian sympathies inclined them to portray Spartans as unbeatable warriors to lessen the shame felt by Athenians after the loss to Sparta in the Peloponnesian war. The sources in this section include both the primary pieces that have contributed to the traditional view of Sparta and the scholarly works that challenge that view as a mirage and a myth.


Primary Sources

Tyrtaios, Poetry Fragment (600s BCE)

Tyrtaios was a Spartan lyric poet who lived during the seventh century BCE. Much of his poetry supports the traditional view of Sparta as a city devoted to military might, but he wrote during a time of war against the rebellious Messenian helots so it is not unexpected that his poetry would reflect the importance of military values and themes of war at the time.

I would neither call a man to mind nor put him in my tale for prowess in the race or the wrestling, not even had he the stature and strength of a Cyclops and surpassed in swiftness the Thracian Northwind, nor were he a comelier man than Tithonus and a richer than Midas or Cinyras, nor though he were a greater king than Pelops son of Tantalus, and had Adrastus’ suasiveness of tongue, nor yet though all fame were his save of warlike strength; for a man is not good in war if he have not endured the sight of bloody slaughter and stood nigh and reached forth to strike the foe. This is prowess, this is the noblest prize and the fairest for a lad to win in the world; a common good this both for the city and all her people, when a man standeth firm in the forefront without ceasing, and making heart and soul to abide, forgetteth foul flight altogether and hearteneth by his words him that he standeth by. Such a man is good in war; he quickly turneth the savage hosts of the enemy, and stemmeth the wave of battle with a will; moreover he that falleth in the van and loseth dear life to the glory of his city and his countrymen and his father, with many a frontwise wound through breast and breastplate and through bossy shield, he is bewailed alike by young and old, and lamented with sore regret by all the city. His grave and his children are conspicuous among men, and his children’s and his line after them; nor ever doth his name and good fame perish, but though he be underground he liveth evermore, seeing that he was doing nobly and abiding in the fight for country’s and children’s sake when fierce Ares brought him low.

  1. What does Tyrtaios say would prevent him from honoring a man in his writing, even if he was fast and strong and comely and rich?
  2. If he had not proven himself in war
  3. If he was not also a great king
  4. If he was not also a good speaker—suave of tongue


  1. How does he describe prowess in war?
  2. The noblest prize for a boy to win in the whole world
  3. A common good for both the city and the people
  4. A foul flight to be forgotten
  5. A and B are correct ms


  1. What happens to those men who fall in battle?
  2. They are mourned by the whole city
  3. His children and his line of descendants are honored
  4. Though they have died, they live evermore (in the hearts of the city)
  5. All of the above ms



Xenophon, Constitution of the Lacedaemonians (300s BCE)

Xenophon was an Athenian military commander and philosopher who lived during the fourth and fifth century BCE. As a military commander of a respected army of Greek mercenaries, Xenophon fought alongside Spartan commanders and gained great respect for Spartan soldiers and society. His histories are very favorable to the Spartan discipline and he emphasizes what he believes contributed to their military supremacy in his work.

Lycurgus thought the labour of slave women sufficient to supply clothing. He believed motherhood to be the most important function of freeborn woman. Therefore, in the first place, he insisted on physical training for the female no less than for the male sex: moreover, he instituted races and trials of strength for women competitors as for men, believing that if both parents are strong they produce more vigorous offspring. . . It might happen, however, that an old man had a young wife; and he observed that old men keep a very jealous watch over their young wives. To meet these cases he instituted an entirely different system by requiring the elderly husband to introduce into his house some man whose physical and moral qualities he admired, in order to beget children. . . . In case a man did not want to cohabit with his wife and nevertheless desired children of whom he could be proud, he made it lawful for him to choose a woman who was the mother of a fine family and of high birth, and if he obtained her husband’s consent, to make her the mother of his children. . . .

Instead of letting [the youth] be pampered in the matter of clothing, he introduced the custom of wearing one garment throughout the year, believing that they would thus be better prepared to face changes of heat and cold. As to the food, he required the prefect to bring with him such a moderate amount of it that the boys . . . would know what it was to go with their hunger unsatisfied; for he believed that those who underwent this training would be better able to continue working on an empty stomach, if necessary . . .

On the other hand, lest they should feel too much the pinch of hunger, while not giving them the opportunity of taking what they wanted without trouble he allowed them to alleviate their hunger by stealing something. . . . There can be no doubt then, that all this education was planned by him in order to make the boys more resourceful in getting supplies, and better fighting men. Someone may ask: But why, if he believed stealing to be a fine thing, did he have the boy who was caught beaten with many stripes? Because in all cases men punish a learner for not carrying out properly whatever he is taught to do. So the Spartans chastise those who get caught for stealing badly.

  1. Why does Lycurgus insist on physical training and trials of strength for women as well as men?
  2. So they can have more vigorous offspring
  3. So they can fight alongside the men in battle
  4. So they can better attract a strong husband


  1. What does Lycurgus require of older men who have younger wives?
  2. The older men must bring a young man into their home to beget children for him with the wife
  3. They must jealously guard them from other men who would try to lure them away
  4. They must give up their wives since they are too old to produce children


  1. How are food rations handled for young men in training for war?
  2. They are only given a small amount so they are prepared to keep working hungry if necessary
  3. They are allowed to steal in order to supplement their food supply
  4. They are allowed to eat as much as they can since they are training hard and need the extra food
  5. A and B are correct ms


  1. What was the purpose of having them steal?
  2. To make the boys more resourceful in getting supplies, and better fighting men
  3. To encourage lawlessness and a disregard for private property of fellow citizens
  4. To keep the government from having to pay for additional food rations


  1. Why, then, were they punished with flogging if they were caught stealing?
  2. Because if they got caught, then they had not learned to steal with cunning and were bad at it
  3. Because stealing was against the law
  4. Because the public needed a scapegoat for their frustrations about what had been stolen from them



Plutarch, Sayings of Spartans (c. 100 CE)

Plutarch was a historian, biographer, and later priest at the Oracle at Delphi who was born in Greece and became a Roman citizen in the first century. His Sayings of Spartans is one of the very few sources on Spartan life but it is a controversial source to use on Sparta since it was written by a non-Spartan hundreds of years after the events recalled. Even the sources, now lost, that he used to write his Sayings of Spartans were written long after the Spartan lives they discuss.

Leonidas. When someone said, “Because of the arrows of the barbarians it is impossible to see the sun,” he said, “Won’t it be nice, then, if we shall have shade in which to fight them? When someone else said, “They are near to us,” he said, “Then we also are near to them.” When Xerxes wrote, “Hand over your arms,” he wrote in reply, “Come and take them.”

Lycurgus. Having introduced the abolition of debts, he next undertook to divide equally all household furnishings, so as to do away completely with all inequality and disparity. But when he saw that the people were likely to demur about assenting to this outright spoliation, he decreed that gold and silver coin should in future have no value, and ordained that the people should use iron money only. He also limited the time within which it was lawful to exchange their present holdings for this money. . . . And, by reason of this, no merchant, no public lecturer, no soothsayer or mendicant priest, no maker of fancy articles ever made his way into Sparta. The reason was that he permitted no handy coinage to circulate among them, but instituted the iron coinage exclusively, which in weight was over a pound and a quarter, and in value not quite a penny. . . . Having determined to make an attack upon the prevailing luxury, and to do away with the rivalry for riches, he instituted the common meals . . .

He took good care that none should be allowed to dine at home and then come to the common meal stuffed with other kinds of food and drink. The rest of the company used to berate the man who did not drink or eat with them, because they felt that he was lacking in self-control, and was too soft for the common way of living. . . .

When someone else desired to know why he instituted strenuous exercise for the bodies of the maidens in races and wrestling and throwing the discus and javelin, he said, “So that the implanted stock of their offspring, by getting a strong start in strong bodies, may attain a noble growth, and that they themselves may with vigour abide the birth of their children and readily and nobly resist the pains of labor; and moreover, if the need arise, that they may be able to fight for themselves, their children, and their country. . . .

In answer to a man who expressed surprise because he debarred the husband from spending the nights with his wife, but ordained that he should be with his comrades most of the day and pass the whole night in their company, and visit his bride secretly and with great circumspection, he said, “So that they may be strong of body and never become sated, and that they may be ever fresh in affection, and that the children which they bring into the world may be more sturdy.”

1.      How does Plutarch characterize Leonidas?

a.       Brave, confident in his troops, and quick-witted in boosting their morale

b.      Cautious, worried that his men will flee, hesitant to engage in battle

c.       Fearful of the Persians, ready to withdraw his troops, preferring flight to fight

2.      How does Lycurgus change the currency?

a.       He mandates all gold and silver be eliminated in favor of iron currency that has no value

b.      He creates a gold standard to improve the economy and bring in commerce

c.       He creates a wealth gap by giving the elites gold and silver and the helots only iron

3.      What other method does Plutarch claim Lycurgus instituted to end the luxurious living of the Spartans?

a.       All men must eat their meals at a common mess hall with their fellow soldiers rather than eating rich meals at their home

b.      All men must give up their elaborate clothing and wear only a single cloak and their armor

c.       All men must give away their private furniture and sleep on the ground or the floor of the barracks

4.      Why does Plutarch say Lycurgus insists on physical training and trials of strength for women as well as men?

a.       So they can have stronger offspring

b.      So they can fight to defend themselves and their families if the need demands it

c.       So they can better withstand the difficulties of labor and childbirth

d.      All of the above ms


Herodotus, The Histories (440 BCE)

Herodotus is a Greek historian of the fifth century who is often praised as the “father of history” since he is one of the first writers to collect evidence and offer analysis of events from the past. However, his work is laced with bias, inaccuracy, and even mythology and legends so it is treated cautiously as a primary source.


Lycurgus, a man of reputation among the Spartans, went to the oracle at Delphi. As soon as he entered the hall, the priestess said in hexameter: “You have come to my rich temple, Lycurgus,
A man dear to Zeus and to all who have Olympian homes. I am in doubt whether to pronounce you man or god, But I think rather you are a god, Lycurgus.” Some say that the Pythia also declared to him the constitution that now exists at Sparta, but the Lacedaemonians themselves say that Lycurgus brought it from Crete when he was guardian of his nephew Leobetes, the Spartan king. Once he became guardian, he changed all the laws and took care that no one transgressed the new ones. Lycurgus afterwards established their affairs of war: the sworn divisions, the bands of thirty, the common meals; also the ephors and the council of elders. . . .

Croesus, then, aware of all this, sent messengers to Sparta with gifts to ask for an alliance . . . [Spartans] welcomed the coming of the Lydians and swore to be his friends and allies; and indeed they were obliged by certain benefits which they had received before from the king. For the Lacedaemonians had sent to Sardis to buy gold, intending to use it for the statue of Apollo which now stands on Thornax in Laconia; and Croesus, when they offered to buy it, made them a free gift of it. For this reason, and because he had chosen them as his friends before all the other Greeks, the Lacedaemonians accepted the alliance. So they declared themselves ready to serve him when he should require, and moreover they made a bowl of bronze, engraved around the rim outside with figures, and large enough to hold twenty-seven hundred gallons, and brought it with the intention of making a gift in return to Croesus. . . .

. . . [Demaratus speaking to Xerxes] “So is it with the Lacedaemonians; fighting singly they are as brave as any man living, and together they are the best warriors on earth. They are free, yet not wholly free: law is their master, whom they fear much more than your men fear you. They do whatever it bids; and its bidding is always the same, that they must never flee from the battle before any multitude of men, but must abide at their post and there conquer or die.”


  1. What does the oracle at Delphi say about Lycurgus?
  2. That she is not sure if he is god or man but suspects he might be more god
  3. That he is destined to create a stronger city out of Sparta
  4. That he is a great military hero and the rightful king of Sparta


  1. What does Lycurgus do for Sparta after he becomes guardian of his nephew the king?
  2. Changes all of the laws and makes sure the new ones are enforced
  3. Sets up the new structure of government including the bands of thirty, the common meals, the ephors and the council of elders
  4. Eliminates his nephew and proclaims himself the new king
  5. A and B are correct ms


  1. What does Croesus, king of Lydia, ask of the Spartans?
  2. He wishes to become their ally
  3. He wants them to become his mercenaries in battle
  4. He wants to take over their lands and rule them



  1. What do the Spartans send Croesus in return and what does this (and the statue of Apollo) suggest about Spartan arts?
  2. They sent a huge engraved bronze bowl indicating the Spartans had workshops devoted to the arts and skilled artisans
  3. They sent a tiny wooden bowl indicating they did not appreciate the luxury of gold and had few artisans who could produce fine art
  4. They sent Athenian made luxury items because Sparta had no appreciation for luxury arts and no artisans who could produce such a gift


  1. What does Herodotus claim is the law of the Spartans?
  2. They must never flee from the battle before any multitude of men
  3. They at their post in battle and there conquer or die
  4. They must avoid luxury and arts that are not devoted to the military
  5. A and B are correct ms



Plutarch, “Lycurgus” in Parallel Lives (c. 100 CE)

Plutarch was a historian, biographer, and later priest at the oracle at Delphi who was born in Greece and became a Roman citizen in the first century. His Parallel Lives provides biographical essays on famous figures from Greek and Roman history and pairs the individuals in order to show similar themes or character traits. Plutarch’s biographies of the Spartan leader Lycurgus is controversial since it was written by a non-Spartan hundreds of years after the events recalled.


The elders of the tribes officially examined the infant, and if it was well-built and sturdy, they ordered the father to rear it, and assigned it one of the nine thousand lots of land; but if it was ill-born and deformed, they sent it to the so‑called Apothetae, a chasm-like place at the foot of Mount Taygetus, in the conviction that the life of that which nature had not well equipped at the very beginning for health and strength, was of no advantage either to itself or the state. . . . Their nurses, too, exercised great care and skill; they reared infants without swaddling-bands, and thus left their limbs and figures free to develop; besides, they taught them to be contented and happy, not dainty about their food, nor fearful of the dark, nor afraid to be left alone, nor given to contemptible peevishness and whimpering. This is the reason why foreigners sometimes brought Spartan nurses for their children. . . .

Of reading and writing, they learned only enough to serve their turn; all the rest of their training was calculated to make them obey commands well, endure hardships, and conquer in battle. Therefore, as they grew in age, their bodily exercise was increased; their heads were close-clipped, and they were accustomed to going bare-foot, and to playing for the most part without clothes. When they were twelve years old, they no longer had tunics to wear, received one cloak a year, had hard, dry flesh, and knew little of baths and ointments; only on certain days of the year, and few at that, did they indulge in such amenities. They slept together, in troops and companies, on pallet-beds which they collected for themselves, breaking off with their hands— no knives allowed—the tops of the rushes which grew along the river . . .

. . . And they steal what they fetch, some of them entering the gardens, and others creeping right slyly and cautiously into the public messes of the men; but if a boy is caught stealing, he is soundly flogged, as a careless and unskilful thief. They steal, too, whatever food they can, and learn to be adept in setting upon people when asleep or off their guard. But the boy who is caught gets a flogging and must go hungry. . . .

The boys make such a serious matter of their stealing, that one of them, as the story goes, who was carrying concealed under his cloak a young fox which he had stolen, suffered the animal to tear out his bowels with its teeth and claws, and died rather than have his theft detected.


  1. What happens upon the birth of a baby in Sparta?
  2. If the child is healthy it is ordered to be raised by its father and is allotted a plot of land
  3. If the child is deformed or sickly it is left to die at the foot of a mountain since it will not become a strong adult
  4. Boy children are celebrated and girl children are mourned
  5. A and B are correct ms


  1. Why did foreigners often want to have Spartan nurses for their infants?
  2. Because the Spartan nurses taught the children not to cry or be afraid of the dark or being left alone
  3. Because Spartan nurses were strong and could manage many babies at once with little sleep
  4. Because Spartan nurses made the babies obedient to command and taught them to read and write earlier than other nurses


  1. What is the goal of Spartan education?
  2. To make the youth obey commands well, endure hardships, and conquer in battle
  3. To teach them to read, write, do advanced math and think independently
  4. To teach them to respect their natural world, grow crops and hunt


  1. How did Spartan youth live after age twelve?
  2. They no longer wore tunics and only had one cloak for the year
  3. They only rarely had baths or ointments on their bodies
  4. They slept together in troops on pallets made of river rushes they had collected by hand
  5. All of the above ms


  1. What did the Spartan boy do rather than admit he had been caught stealing a fox?
  2. Allowed it to tear out his bowels with its teeth and claws and died rather than be caught stealing
  3. Reminded the Spartans that they promoted and encouraged stealing to supplement the small rations of food given to the young trainees
  4. Hid it in his comrade’s house and blamed him for the theft



Scholarly Sources

Nigel Kennell, Spartans: A New History, (Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester 2010), 1-25.

Nigel Kennell is Lecturer in the Department of Classical, Near Eastern, and Religious Studies at the University of British Columbia. Kennell has written four books on Spartan and Greek life and countless articles. He has challenged the traditional narrative of Sparta in favor of a view of their society that is not exclusively devoted to the military.


The Spartans of our imagination are familiar from films, novels, comics and even certain history books. The men were ruled by iron discipline and an utter devotion to the laws of their city and the freedom of Greece; the women were more or less equivalent to the liberated women of modern times. These images of the Spartan way of life have been transmitted down through the centuries from the pens of ancient Greek and Roman writers through the scribes of the Middle Ages to the Renaissance humanists and thence to the scriptwriters, pundits, and novelists of the twenty-first century. . . . In recent years, however, the traditional view of Sparta has come under increasingly intense scrutiny as historians and archeologists apply new techniques, perspectives and occasionally even new pieces of evidence to the question of what it was to be a Spartan.

As a result, the long-standing consensus over the fundamental nature of Spartan society has begun to crumble. In its place, intense debate has arisen over each and every facet of what we thought we knew about Sparta and the Spartans. Even the very definition of “proper” Spartan history has changed as more and more specialists examine different aspects of post-classical Sparta. . . . In no other area of ancient Greek history is there a greater gulf between the common conception of Sparta and what specialists believe and dispute.


. . . Constructing a history of Sparta is bedeviled by two complicating factors—the lack of a corpus of writings by Classical Spartan authors that might illuminate the inner workings of Spartan institutions and the mindset of the Spartans themselves and the existence of a large corpus of writings by non-Spartans claiming to do just that. This is the famous “Spartan mirage” through which the image of the historical city gradually became transformed through the work of philosophers, biographers, historians, and romantics into that of a radically unique state unlike any other in Greece. . .


. . . If Tyrtaeus’ poems conform to our expectation of what Spartan poetry was like, Alcman’s do not. His poetry reflects a sophisticated society reveling in the good life: Song, dance, physical beauty, splendid textiles, and the brightness of gold figure prominently . . . Archeological finds, notably from the shrine of Orthia itself, also attest to a love of luxury, humor, and even frivolity in the early Archaic period that hardly jibes with the dour, militaristic Spartans of the ancient (and modern) imagination.


  1. According to Kennell, what has become the accepted image of Spartan society?
  2. Men ruled by iron discipline and an utter devotion to the laws of their city
  3. Women were more or less equivalent to the liberated women of modern times
  4. Men and women of Sparta were primitive and backward and eclipsed by Athens
  5. A and B are correct ms


  1. What does Kennell say has happened recently to our understanding of what it was to be Spartan?
  2. the traditional view of Sparta has come under increasingly intense scrutiny as historians and archeologists apply new techniques, perspectives and occasionally even new pieces of evidence
  3. the long-standing consensus over the fundamental nature of Spartan society has crumbled and intense debate has arisen over each and every facet of what we thought we knew about Sparta
  4. there is now a great gulf between the common conception of Sparta and what specialists believe and dispute
  5. All of the above ms


  1. What is the Spartan mirage caused by?
  2. A lack of Spartan sources that can illuminate their institutions and the mindset of the Spartans themselves
  3. An abundance of non-Spartan sources, possibly inaccurate, claiming to accurately depict Spartan life
  4. The movies and books about Sparta created in the modern day
  5. A and B are correct ms


  1. How do the poems of Spartan poets Tyrtaeus and Alcman contribute to the mirage?
  2. Tyrtaeus’ poems support the traditional view of a militarist society but Alcman’s indicate a society of luxury and beauty and art
  3. Alcman’s poems support the traditional view of a militarist society but Tyrtaeus’ indicate a society of luxury and beauty and art
  4. Both poets wrote about training of soldiers, military valor, and Spartan battles that support the traditional view of Sparta as a military-focused society



  1. What other source contradicts the traditional view of Sparta as a society only interested in military affairs?
  2. Archeological finds, notably from the shrine of the goddess Orthia, that indicate a love of frivolity and luxury in Sparta
  3. Literary sources from later Roman authors like Plutarch who have a clearer view of the Spartan culture
  4. Numerous sources written by common Spartan citizens about their daily life



Stephen Hodkinson, “Was Classical Sparta a Military Society?” in Sparta and War, eds. Stephen Hodkinson and Anton Powell (2006) 111–62.

Stephen Hodkinson is Emeritus Professor of Ancient History at the University of Nottingham and Director of the University’s Center for Spartan and Peloponnesian Studies. His expertise on Sparta specifically and Greek warfare and society more generally have led the modern day city of Sparta to grant him honorary citizenship. He has written more than eight books and edited volumes on Spartan history.


[The aspect of Spartan military] on which I shall concentrate – is the question of the effect of the Spartans’ approach to military matters upon the character of Spartan society. Was Plato right, for instance, to claim that key institutions such as the common meals, the gymnasia, hunting and the krypteia were devised with a view to war? . . .


. . . Scholars have often wanted to view the Spartans’ need to keep the large helot populations of Lakonia and Messenia under permanent subjection as the major driving force behind their creation of a cohesive society of citizens sharing a common public lifestyle. This hypothesis has naturally led scholars to assume that the society thus created must have been dominated by the requirements of military security. . . .


However, as I have already argued elsewhere, to ascribe the transformation and subsequent character of Spartan society to the helot problem is too extreme. Sparta was not unique in reducing a native population to a condition of servitude during the archaic period. . . .


. . . Indeed, so little were the Spartans normally in fear of a helot threat that they went about their daily lives unarmed. . . . In sum, there are no grounds for assuming purely from the presence of the helots that Spartan society must have possessed an especially military character.


Clearly, there are some respects in which military affairs were more prominent in Spartiate life than within the life of citizens in other poleis. The most basic respect was that liability for military service, in its primary form of hoplite fighting, extended to all Spartiates between the ages of 20 and 60. No other Greek polis equated citizenship with military service to quite this extent; although . . . all Greek poleis had very high rates of military participation. . . .


. . . Contemporary sources are silent about the provision of specialized military training for adult Spartiates. Not only, as we have seen, are the implications of the references to collective formation drill ambiguous; there is no mention at all of weapons practice or of any sort of mock combat training. . . .


. . . Evidence for their other daily activities suggests that adult Spartiates had sizeable amounts of time available for personal business, such as approaches to their patrons or pederastic partners, political negotiations, economic transactions in the agora, and supervision of their estates. An adult Spartiate’s daily life was not excessively dominated by his civic duties, still less by those aspects of his duties that pertained to his role as a warrior.


  1. What traditional image of Sparta is Hodkinson questioning?
  2. The image of Sparta as a society whose character was overly influenced by its devotion to military and war
  3. The image of Sparta as a luxurious, artistic, and literary society similar to Athens
  4. The image of Sparta as a military power that sought to expand its territory


  1. What does Hodkinson say other scholars have wrongly assumed about the helots?
  2. That the fear of the large population of helots forced to labor for the Spartans eventually rebelling was a rationale for the creation of a strong Spartan military state
  3. That the labor performed by the helots allowed Spartan men and women to spend their time in other pursuits rather than housekeeping and agricultural work
  4. That the helots were unhappy in their subject status and desired to rebel against the Spartans


  1. What fact does Hodkinson admit indicates Sparta had a greater focus on military participation than other Greek cities?
  2. No other Greek city required military service as hoplites from all men between the ages of 20 and 60 in return for citizenship
  3. No other Greek city had high rates of military participation by its average citizens
  4. No other Greek city had extensive military training regimens for its citizen soldiers


  1. What does Hodkinson conclude about the life of Spartan citizens?
  2. An adult Spartiate’s daily life was not excessively dominated by his role as a warrior
  3. An adult Spartiate had sizeable amounts of time available for personal business unrelated to military matters
  4. An adult Spartiate spent all his time on military training exercises and weapons practice leaving little time for any civic, cultural, or recreational life
  5. A and B are correct ms





Paul Cartledge, The Spartans: An Epic History (Macmillan, 2002) 1–50.

Paul Cartledge is A.G. Leventis Senior Research Fellow, Clare College and Emeritus A.G. Leventis Professor of Greek Culture at Cambridge University. He has written or edited over thirty books on Spartan and ancient Greek history and continues to support much of the traditional narrative on Sparta.


Helots are the single most important human fact about ancient Sparta. . . . The Helots provided the Spartans with the economic basis of their unique lifestyle. They vastly outnumbered the full Spartan citizens . . . The Spartans were exceptionally successful masters, keeping the Helots in subjection for more than three centuries. But they did so at considerable cost. The threat of Helot revolt, especially from the Messenians, was almost constant, and the Spartans responded by turning themselves into a sort of permanently armed camp, Fortress Sparta. Male Spartan citizens were forbidden any other trade, profession or business other than war, and they acquired the reputation of being the Marines of the entire Greek world, a uniquely professional and motivated fighting force. . . .


The legend of Lycurgus postulated a remarkable ‘Year Zero’ scenario when, at a moment of deep crisis, he was able to persuade his fellow Spartans to introduce the comprehensive and compulsory educational cycle called the Agoge . . . This system of education, training, and socialization turned boys into fighting men whose reputation for discipline, courage, and skill was unsurpassed. . . .


The Spartan myth was persuasively labelled a ‘mirage’ in the 1930s by the French scholar François Ollier, because the relation between the myth and reality was and is sometimes so hard to perceive without distortion. . . . Perhaps the most interesting and controversial of all its many facets is the position of Spartan women. . . . An Athenian girl would receive no formal education beyond training for the domestic duties required of a good Athenian wife and mother . . .


In sharp and complete contrast, Spartan women were—allegedly—active, prominent, powerful, surprisingly independent-minded . . . Girls had a similar education to that of boys, though separate . . . they threw the javelin and discus, wrestled . . . all completely naked and in full public view, to the consternation of Greek visitors from other cities. . . .


Spartan women could own property, including land . . . Helot women and men did the housework for them . . . Sexually too they seemed to be independent . . .



  1. How does Cartledge describe the role of the subject helots in Spartan society?
  2. The constant threat of their revolt caused Sparta to become overly focused on its military as a sort of permanently armed camp
  3. Helots provided the labor for Spartan society but were not seen as a threat to Sparta
  4. Helots were often integrated into Spartan society as soldiers and non-citizen members


  1. What does Cartledge say became the reputation of the Spartan soldiers and the youth in training?
  2. They had a reputation as the Marines of the entire Greek world, a uniquely professional and motivated fighting force
  3. They had a reputation for discipline, courage, and skill that was unsurpassed
  4. They had a reputation for never leaving Sparta since they feared a revolt by the helots while their military was away
  5. A and B are correct ms


  1. What one depiction does Cartledge seem to consider a possible result of the Spartan myth or mirage?
  2. The depiction of Spartan women as active, prominent, and independent—minded
  3. The depiction of the helots as rebellious and a threat to Spartan order
  4. The depiction of the Spartan soldiers as a professional, disciplined, fighting force



Andrew G Scott, “Plural Marriage and the Spartan State,” Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte, Bd. 60, H. 4 (2011) 413–24

Andrew Scott is Associate Professor of Classical Studies at Villanova University. His primary expertise lies in Roman civilization and the history of Cassius Dio although he has written several articles on Spartan society.


According to several ancient sources, Spartan custom allowed for plural marriage, whereby two or more men might sire children by the same woman. It has been written that “[e]vidence for the custom of wife-sharing. . . is so unequivocal that it is impossible to disbelieve it altogether.” Taking this comment as a starting point, I suggest that an understanding of the institution of plural marriage is crucial for a greater understanding of archaic and classical Sparta. . . . since the institution of the practice is attributed to Lycurgus, we are within the limits of the so-called Spartan mirage . . . The purpose of marriage at Sparta was the propagation of healthy offspring, and in such a system, the value of a marriage was calculated with regard to the ability to produce such children. Spartan men and women were meant to marry at the acme of their physical fitness and so organized exercise was prescribed for both sexes. Once the marriage had taken place, men and women were not to spend an unlimited amount of time together, and forced separation was meant to increase desire and therefore produce more vigorous offspring. . . . Men and women allegedly did not cohabit until much later in life, probably not until the time that their first male offspring would have entered the agõgê. While the mother presumably lived with the offspring of the marriage, the male lived with his fellow Spartiates while his first children were still young. This weakened sense of paternity can also be seen in the relationships between Spartiates and younger boys. As Xenophon specifically points out, all Spartan males acted as fathers to Spartan boys . . . In a social system that did not emphasize the rights and emotional engagements of paternity, the practice of wife sharing accords with the sense of collective parenting. . . . Based on its ideological association of egalitarianism and consequent similarity to other social constructs that were conceived prior to the classical period, formalized plural marriage as an institution most likely dates to the archaic period, and the goal of the institution was the production of the finest offspring and to exploit the procreative ability of the most fertile women. On an ideological level, it most likely arose out of the sense of egalitarianism that was officially imposed on various Spartan institutions at this time.


  1. What topic does Scott explore that he admits is supported by questionable sources and therefore within the realm of the Spartan mirage?
  2. Plural marriage in which two men could sire children with the same woman
  3. The encouragement of exercise for women
  4. The egalitarianism of Spartan society


  1. What does Scott say was the purpose of marriage and the rationale for rules about it?
  2. The birth of healthy offspring for the community
  3. The creation of family units and heirs to inherit property
  4. The partnership of romantically bonded men and women


  1. Where did the adult male Spartan live?
  2. With his fellow Spartan men in barracks while the women and children lived in the home
  3. With his wife and children in their home when he was not eating in the common hall
  4. In the home while his wife and children lived with his wife’s family


  1. What support does Scott provide that plural marriage would have been a real practice rather than a product of the Spartan mirage?
  2. He notes Spartans did not emphasize paternity and acted as fathers to all Spartan boys
  3. He notes many other Spartan institutions at the time emphasized egalitarianism
  4. He notes the goal of marriage was to produce healthy offspring and take advantage of female fertility
  5. All of the above ms


Agnes Bencze, “Art and Craft in Archaic Sparta,” in Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000)

Agnes Bencze is Assistant Professor of Art History at Hungary’s Pázmány Péter Catholic University. She received a Mellon Foundation grant to study at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in 2012.

Archaeological finds . . . show that the image of Sparta, as a city-state without art dedicated exclusively to warfare, cannot be simply extrapolated to the Archaic period. In fact, in the seventh and sixth centuries B.C., and especially in the first half of the sixth century B.C., Sparta and its region, Lakonia, had its own workshops in several genres of artistic craft, such as vase painting, metalwork, ivory and bone carving, and even stone sculpture, in which artists created works in an original, often well-recognizable style with a distinct iconographic repertoire. Painted pottery was produced in Lakonian workshops already in the eighth century B.C., in a local version of the geometric style, and circulated to most regions and centers of the Greek world. After the mainly nonfigural decoration of the Orientalizing period, around 630 B.C., Lakonian vase painters adopted the black-figure technique from Corinth . . . Although it cannot be compared to the Athenian in quantity and in artistic invention, Lakonian black-figure vase painting produced a characteristic style and reached even remote regions of the Mediterranean . . .


. . . Lakonian black-figure painters had a predilection for special variations on conventional mythological scenes, symbolic figures like winged human figures, sirens, and sphinxes, and floral ornamental patterns including pomegranates and tendrils . . . An outstanding field of Lakonian art and craft was bronzeworking, in particular small-scale bronze sculpture and the production of decorated bronze vessels. Solid cast, small-scale bronze figures usually embellished vessels, tripods, mirrors, and other utensils. . . . Lakonian bronze vessels are distinguished essentially on stylistic grounds from contemporary Corinthian, Argive, Athenian, and other products, taking into account both the shape and technical traits of the vessels themselves and the rendering of the figural decoration. One particular class of bronze objects can be entirely ascribed to Sparta on the account of their special iconography: disk-shaped mirrors supported by figures of nude girls . . . Literary sources confirm that in the sixth century B.C., Sparta was also a major artistic center and home to several important artists and workshops. Some of the artists may have been immigrants, mainly of East Greek origin . . . Others seem to have been born and educated in Sparta . . . While these works of art, however famous in late antiquity, are now lost, we can rely on some extant stone sculptures for an idea of Lakonian large-scale art . . . especially the monumental piece found in Chrysapha, and an early sixth-century B.C. female head in Olympia, which can be connected with Sparta on firm stylistic grounds.



  1. What does Bencze argue about early Sparta?
  2. The image of Sparta as a society without arts that didn’t revolve around warfare is not accurate
  3. That Sparta had its own workshops for a variety of crafts including metalworking and vase painting
  4. That archeological evidence supports the image of Sparta as a society with few arts and little craftmanship compared to other Greek cities
  5. A and B are correct ms


  1. What does Bencze say about Spartan black-figure vase painting?
  2. The Spartans developed a distinctive style in the art form although it was not as inventive as the Athenian style
  3. Their vase painting tended to feature only scenes of warfare and soldiers engaging in training exercises
  4. Their pottery was without decoration because the Spartans were not interested in arts that were unrelated to the military


  1. In which artform does Bencze say the Spartans excelled and what was their most distinctive product?
  2. Bronzeworking with their most distinctive product being mirrors with figures of nude girls as handles
  3. Vase painting with their most distinctive product being bowls with scenes of warfare
  4. Stone sculpture with their most distinctive product being tiny stone soldiers for children




History Through Literature

Alcman, Partheneion (600s BCE)

Alcman was a lyric poet from Sparta in the seventh century BCE. Most of Alcman’s poetry was lost in the Middle Ages except for brief lines included in other works. However, in the mid-1800s, a piece of papyrus was found in Saqqara Egypt containing one-hundred lines of an Alcman poem called the “Partheneion” (Maiden Song.) This piece would most likely have been performed at a public festival in Sparta by a chorus of maidens. The two leading roles would have been Agido and Hagesikhora. Additional poems by Alcman were found and translated in the 1960s after archeologists found a garbage dump in Oxyrhynchus, Egypt containing thousands of pieces of papyrus with literature and other writings.


  And I sing the radiance of Agido, seeing
    her as the sun, which for us
    is shown by Agido—she is the eyewitness
    to shine with its sunlight. But for me to praise her
    or to blame her is not allowed by the glorious leader of the chorus
  No, she does not allow me. For that one appears radiantly to be
    outstanding, as when someone
    sets among grazing cattle a horse,
    well-built, a prize-winner, with thundering hooves,
    something from out of those dreams that happen underneath a rock.
  Don’t you see? One is a racehorse
    from Paphlagonia. But the mane
    of the other one, my kinswoman
    Hagesikhora, blossoms on her head
    like imperishable gold.
  And the silver look of her face—
    what can I tell you openly?
    She is Hagesikhora.
    But whoever is second to Agido in beauty,
    let her be a Scythian horse running against a Lydian one.
  I say this because the Pleiades,
    as we bring the sacred veil for the Dawn Goddess,
    are passing through the ambrosial night, rising up over the horizon
    like Sirius the star, to do battle with us.
    It is true: all the royal purple
  in the world cannot resist.
    No fancy snake-bracelet,
    made of pure gold, no headdress
    from Lydia, the kind that girls
    with tinted eyelids wear to make themselves fetching.
  No, even the hair of Nanno is not enough.
    Nor goddess-like Areta,
    nor Thylakis and Kleesithera;
    you wouldn’t say so even if you went to the house of Ainesimbrota.
    Even if Astaphis were mine,
  or Philylla gazed at me,
    Damareta too, and lovely Ianthemis,
    still, it is Hagesikhora who wears me down.
    For she, with her beautiful ankles,
    Hagesikhora, is not there.
  She stays at the side of Agido.
    And she gives authority to our festive actions.


  1. What do Alcman’s maidens sing about?
  2. The beauty and desirability of their fellow maidens
  3. The glory of war and the bravery of soldiers
  4. Their role as mothers to Spartan soldiers


  1. How does Alcman compare the beautiful Hagesikkora and Agido to other women?
  2. They are like prize-winning racehorses among a field of cattle
  3. They are like obedient soldiers of Sparta in the midst of other Greeks
  4. They are like goddesses of light and beauty amidst mortals


  1. What does this fragment of poetry challenge?
  2. The image of Sparta as a society without appreciation for arts, poetry, and beauty
  3. The idea of independent and active women in Sparta
  4. The image of women in Sparta as wives and mothers



Simonides of Ceos, “On Those Who Died at Thermopylae” (400s BCE)

Simonides was a fifth-century BCE Greek lyric poet from the island of Ceos in the Aegean. His skill in composing epitaphs and poetry memorializing fallen warriors apparently won him great renown and many requests for his work during the Greco-Persian wars. His life and work are often difficult to date since most of his own work is lost. However, much insight has been gained from new pieces by Simonides found at the dig in Oxyrhynchus Egypt.


Of those who at Thermopylae were slain,
⁠Glorious the doom, and beautiful the lot;
Their tomb an altar: men from tears refrain
⁠To honor them, and praise, but mourn them not.
Such sepulchre, nor drear decay ⁠
Nor all-destroying time shall waste; this right have they.
Within their grave the home-bred glory
⁠Of Greece was laid: this witness gives
Leonidas the Spartan, in whose story
⁠A wreath of famous virtue ever lives.

Simonides of Ceos, “Epitaph”

The famous epitaph was supposedly written by Simonides of Ceos at the request of the Greek victors in the Greco-Persian wars and carved on a cenotaph at Thermopylae. It has been reproduced in other works over the centuries although the original cenotaph was destroyed.


Go, passerby, to Sparta tell

Obedient to her laws we fell



  1. What does Simonides say about those who died at Thermopylae?
  2. Dying for their country was glorious and beautiful
  3. They should be honored and praised, not mourned
  4. Their death will destroy the reputation of Leonidas as a successful military leader
  5. A and B are correct ms


  1. What supposed law does Simonides say the Spartan’ obeyed at Thermopylae?
  2. Fight with bravery to the last man rather than surrender
  3. No luxury, arts, or shows of wealth were allowed
  4. Women were to exercise and train just like the men did




Visual Source Materials

Spartan Coin (200s BCE)

The constitution of Lycurgus commanded that gold and silver be removed from Sparta and that all currency be reduced to iron rods to discourage commerce in luxury items and the focus on acquisition of wealth. The lack of coins during the centuries of Spartan dominance in the Greek world seems to support the existence of such a policy on currency. The first Spartan coins seem to have been created in very small quantities and were not minted until the reign of Spartan king Areus I in the mid-third century, hundreds of years after other Greek cities began minting coins and well after Spartan military dominance had faded.




  1. What does the lack of Spartan coins before the third century seem to indicate was an actual Spartan policy and not part of the Spartan mirage?
  2. Lycurgus’ law that no gold or silver currency was to be created in Sparta to discourage luxury and commerce
  3. The lack of communication or interaction with non-Spartan Greeks
  4. The use of all Spartan currency to create a gold statue to Apollo




Bronze Statuette of Spartan Girl (500s BCE)

Despite the myth that Sparta was not engaged in culture or artistic endeavors unconnected to the military, Sparta was actually well-known for its bronzework, in the sixth century BCE, especially engravings and small bronze statues and figures. This figure shows a girl participating in either a race or a dance. Scholars who claim she is running note her off the shoulder tunic that does not reach her ankles – a display of the woman’s body that would not have been accepted in many Greek cities-—and her pose of athleticism. This type of garment would have been worn at the Heraea, a footrace by women dedicated to the goddess Hera and the only Olympic competition in which women could engage.


  1. What does the image suggest about the Spartan arts?
  2. Bronzework, particularly figures and engraving, were established artforms in Sparta that employed skilled artisans
  3. Art was not an area of interest for the Spartans unless it was useful in war or devoted to the military
  4. Spartans were not interested in luxury items or artwork due to the laws of Lycurgus against luxury and wealth


  1. What does the figure suggest about Spartan women?
  2. Women were physically active, in this case either running or dancing
  3. Women were not required to wear clothing that covered their heads or arms and legs in public
  4. Spartan women were relegated to the home and were not to be seen in public
  5. A and B are correct ms



Alcman, Fragment

In the 1960s, newly discovered collections of the Spartan poet Alcman’s poems were translated and published. These had been unearthed from an ancient garbage dump in Oxyrhynchus, Egypt. Because the Egyptians had copied and preserved much of the Greek literature, philosophy and art, the Egyptian dump was an incredible source of ancient Greek culture. This piece of papyrus is called Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 8 and was originally discovered by archeologists Grenfell and Hunt in 1897 during the initial decades of the Oxyrhynchus dig. They published its translation the following year. The actual papyrus is 61 by 109 millimeters and contains seven lines of poetry.




  1. What does the existence of this fragment of poetry suggest about Sparta?
  2. Sparta had poets who produced great works of literature just like other Greek cities
  3. Spartan arts were admired even if they were not devoted to war and the military
  4. Sparta had little respect for the arts, including poetry, and few literate citizens
  5. A and B are correct ms




Rider Painter, Black-figure Kylike (500s BCE)

This kylike, or shallow drinking cup, was created by a Spartan artist called the “rider painter” after one of his other pieces. This cup shows a clear example of the black-figure style of pottery painting that was common in Sparta in the sixth century BCE. The scene is interpreted by scholars as either a depiction of Achilles or Cadmus but is agreed to be a mythological scene, the most common theme among Spartan painters.




  1. What does the image suggest about Spartan arts?
  2. Spartan art was valued and Spartan artists were encouraged in their craft
  3. Spartans were not allowed to devote their time to art since it detracted from their preparation for war
  4. Spartan art was not encouraged or supported and few artists existed


  1. How does the bowl also support the traditional image of Sparta?
  2. The scene depicted, though mythological, is glorifying an armed soldier
  3. The bowl was not allowed to remain in Sparta
  4. The technique is very poor and imitative of Athenian work







Jacques-Louis David, Leonidas at Thermopylae (1814)

This oil on canvas painting by French painter Jacques-Louis David depicts Spartan king Leonidas in the center surrounded by his 300 Spartan warriors who prepare to hold the mountain pass at Thermopylae against the Persian invaders in the Greco-Persian Wars. On the far left, a man carves into the mountain pass the lines that Simonides of Ceos actually wrote later to commemorate those who died: “Go passerby to Sparta tell, Obedient to her law we fell.” David was not the only modern artist to glorify the sacrifice at Thermopylae and contribute to the perpetuation of the Spartan mirage.



  1. How does this painting propagate the Spartan mirage?
  2. David emphasizes the willing sacrifice of the Spartan soldiers and their obedience to Leonidas
  3. David shows the Spartans fearful of battle and fleeing the commands of Leonidas
  4. David shows the Spartans fighting alongside their wives to defend the city



History and the Other Disciplines: Multi-Spectral Imaging

One of the greatest difficulties scholars have in refuting or challenging elements of the Spartan mirage and coming to a closer understanding of what life was like in Sparta is the absence of large quantities of reliable source material. The best remedy for this, and the best opportunity for improving our knowledge of ancient societies like Sparta, is to find additional usable texts from these civilizations. Scientific technology is now aiding in that pursuit with the introduction of multi-spectral imaging to help recover what was previously considered illegible writing on damaged papyri. Multi-spectral imaging (MSI) was originally developed by NASA to map the surface of Mars but was introduced to historians to try to decipher some badly burned Roman manuscripts buried after the eruption of Mt. Vesuvius. Now its use is being extended to the Oxyrhynchus papyri, an unparalleled archeological source for new works of Greek literature previously believed to have been lost to history. Multi-spectral imaging provides multiple pictures of the writing taken using different filters that capture different wavelengths of light including those in the infrared and ultraviolet ranges. This allows researchers to find the best possible light wavelength for distinguishing ink from papyrus and opens up an enormous number of pages of papyrus, previously thought unusable, for study and translation. In 2002, a joint partnership was formed between Brigham Young University, where researchers had developed a way to convert the NASA technology into a format for reading ancient manuscripts, and the Oxford University libraries where the Oxyrhynchus papyri was held.


The image below shows the original illegible text and beside it the text revealed by MSI.





Historical Thinking Prompts


  1. How do the primary sources depict Spartan society and the reforms of Lycurgus? Provide several examples of how these sources describe the training of youth, attitudes toward luxury and the arts, expectations for Spartan men, etc. Consider how at least one scholar rejects this image as a “Spartan mirage.” Use supporting details from the pieces to support your points.
  2. Compare and contrast those scholars who challenge the traditional view of Sparta as a society overly devoted to its military preparation with those who tend to reinforce the traditional image. How does each scholar support his/her perspective on Spartan society and how does each address the potential issue of a Spartan mirage caused by author bias and lack of accurate sources?
  3. Compare and contrast the positions of Hodkinson and Cartledge on life in Sparta. Where do they agree and where do they disagree? Which scholar’s interpretation seems to be supported by the primary sources? Why does Kennell say these primary sources should not be fully trusted?


Active Learning Assignment

Transcription of ancient papyrus – an international volunteer project

In 1896 in Oxyrhynchus Egypt, two British archeology students, Bernard Grenfel and Arthur Hunt, began a dig at a massive ancient garbage dump. They were hoping to find a few scraps of papyrus with Greek literature. Instead they found one of the most important archeological sites of the ancient world. Here, preserved in the dry sandy soil were thousands upon thousands of papyrus pages, many of which contained works of Greek literature that had been believed lost forever. Among those Greek works of literature were new pieces by Simonides of Ceos and the Spartan poet Alcman that give us new insight into what life was really like in Sparta.


Today the dig at Oxyrhynchus continues as does the work of translating the uncovered papyrus. Sadly, after a hundred years of constant work and the publication of over 77 volumes of translations, it is estimated only about 2% of the find has been translated.


In this assignment you will engage in the Oxford Archives project through the Ancient Lives site, a volunteer project created in 2011 that allows regular citizens around the world to help translate this lost treasure of Greek and Egyptian literature and history. The new technology used in the project allows anyone, regardless of their language skills or knowledge of history, to help with the work of translation by simply clicking the letters that resemble the shapes you see.


Go to the Ancient Lives site and click “start transcribing” to give your best effort at contributing to this work of uncovering the past.

For a chance to see the papyrus alongside the translation of that papyrus by a professional go to for the Oxyrhynchus Online collection of translated papyrus. A search by author for Alcman will pull up several examples relevant to the discussion of Spartan literature.


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You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

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Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3. Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4. Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

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550 words
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Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

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