How the author develops his or her arguments


A few tips for your review article.

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1. Make a clear distinction between the introduction, the summary of the book, and your evaluation. It’s a good idea to label these formally.

2. Discipline yourself to focus on one thing at a time. Don’t mix your intro with the review. Don’t mix your evaluation with the review.

3. Your intro should set the context for the review. This is your chance to hook the reader by dangling something interesting in front of the reader that will persuade the reader that this book will address an issue the reader is interested in.

4. The review portion should identify up front the theme or thesis of the author of the book. It should then explain how the author supports or develops the theme as the book progresses. When the reader is done reading this section he or she should have a very good sense of what the book is about and how the author of the book develops and supports his or her arguments.

5. The evaluation should focus on explaining how well the author does or does not develop his or her arguments. Some examples you might address are:

· Are the arguments of the book coherent?

· Are the arguments well supported?

· Is the information presented in the book true or reliable?

· Is there relevant information the author does not present which would lead to a different conclusion?

6. When you introduce sources it is often helpful to provide some identifying information about the source so that the reader of your review has some context to judge the relevance and reliability of the source.

7. The review article should be coherent and the points should follow logically. There should be a connection between your introduction, what you focus on in the review and your evaluation.


Your essays will be graded on the following criteria:

· Accurate and relevant summary of the arguments of the author;

· Overall quality of the evaluation and analysis;

· Organization, structure and clarity;

· Correct use of standard English grammar, syntax and spelling.

· Correct citation.



Pakistan on the brink

Introduction Comment by SSU: The writing style is mostly ok. The sentence structure is clear. But, the paragraphs contain too many ideas so the writing appears choppy and disjointed.

What Ahmed Rashid has done is to repeat the news which has been read in the last tens of years. This is why most (Rashid, 2013)people note that it is an outdated book which is a mere repetition of what they already know. On his side, he says that he was forced by circumstances to write the book and that it did not come to him first, but through some editors and authors. They had a big influence on his work as he confesses. Comment by SSU: You should work on your paragraphs, paragraphs should contain ideas that are developed in the paragraph. Also, ideas don’t flow from point to point. This intro should not be the intro, instead you should write me an evaluation. You need to discuss why this book is important. The introduction you wrote should be elsewhere throughout the essay. Comment by SSU: Who?

It is a book which covers a series of political instabilities in Pakistan, bomb counts, a compendium of statistics as well as other wiki knowledge. It covers the history of Pakistan, the various attacks which have been organized in the country. He also so much features the rise of Taliban activities and its time that it was called Punjabi Taliban. The major assassinations are also covered like the one of Burhan Uddin Rabbani. The murderous killing of the brother of the President Hamid Karzai of Afghan is also looked at among other killings.

Analysis of the text Comment by SSU: Define the theme and goal of the book clearly upfront and then explain how the author develops and supports the argument.

Rashid also addresses the rise of military bases in Pakistan as well as the Punjabi Taliban. His main theme is concentrated on the western, because he looks at the western countries only, such as the US. In the US, he looks at the coming elections, but he did not cover much. This is because he did not want to look at it much and attract the attention of the people when he did not intend it. He intended to write about the military attacks and other terrorist activities.


The reasons why the US, Pakistan, and other nations got into the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq are also covered in his book. In fact, the history of terrorism is given lightly, so that we can follow the reasons why terrorism was initiated in the US. The fact that the US got involved in Iraq war, they beat Iraq in a way which actually made the people want revenge. It was not known to the US that Iraq was preparing for revenge, and what followed was history which was written not only in books but which also remained in people’s hearts. Comment by SSU: The professor got lost here he wasn’t sure what you meant/wanted to say. Give a summary of what the book says then at the end give an evaluation.

It is what is referred to this present day as 9/11 attacks because the number of people who died was so large. From the various attacks that Osama Bin Laden has organized and participated in, to the countries he has attacked both in the west and in other parts of the world such as Kenya and Tanzania in Africa. This is also covered at length, though Rashid does not go into very deep details, and connect it with what is happening in the present day.

However, we can learn how terroristic groups run, as in the case when they elect other people who can succeed them. They do not know when they can die, and everything is well organized. This is to allow for continuity of their terrorist attacks. This has been the reason why it is not easy to do away with terrorism. There are so far many terrorists who are carrying out the work, and to end this, there should be a high degree of collaboration between the bodies involved.

The book also highlights the death of Osama Bin Laden, and other major leaders of terrorist groups, not only al-Qaida but also others which were small groups and others which are sort of international or transnational (Rashid, 2013).

The writing of Rashid borrows so much from his co-writer, Tariq Ali who is from Pakistan, as what they write about is so much related. They all write about the major problems their country is facing, especially information to do with security and wars. Tariq uses the Pakistan language while Rashid uses English, which makes him better, because the book will be read wider and far countries, apart from Pakistan. Comment by SSU: I like that you talked about Tariq Ali but you should use him as a resource for you evaluation. And you should introduce Tariq Ali a little more before you talk about him, but be careful, I didn’t ask you to review Tariq Ali, but I did ask for Ahmed Rashid (which is 70% of the assignment). Comment by SSU: Tariq Ali writes in English as well.

Tariq tackles the problem which touches the US defense and how they are answering the security problem. The US has been fighting for the ways they can counter attack in the terrorist attacks because at the time the book was written, the US was facing the hardest time in dealing with terrorism. However, after some time, the situation stabilized in a way, and they directed their attention to other sectors. However, the book takes a glance at the fact that the US has used so much in keeping security at a better position and to ensure that terrorism is kept at bay.

Although Tariq addresses the same issues, he uses his own language different from what Rashid uses, and but still, they are handling the same ideas. As per the opinion of Rashid, the US and other European troops get involved in wars which they are very sure that they will lose. Without caring, though, they just get injected into the bloody wars and at the end, they get nothing but death. Victory is not on their sides in many times. He also notes that the troops are never enough to win. This is what makes us wonder. Did he mean that there are not enough military persons in such countries, or is it because the governments do not want to release them?

The President of the US at that moment, President Barrack Obama is also blamed in the process, because he is not able to personalize the war in Afghan and for hiding the truth on the plight of Afghanistan. However, how much he is blamed, he has decided to close his mouth over the issue, over reasons which are only known to her. There are some studies which are conducted to know what the strategies that the US is using to help them deal with terrorism, but it is clear that it is the top secret of the DHS and the government. Comment by mohammed oweija: The professor said that he thinks Rashid’s point is that the president’s politics is incoherent.

Rashid can be said to be bringing out the stories which have been far forgotten in a review manner. He also handles so many stories which count in the international politics to light, such that what some people did not know is known (Rashid, 2013). In his book, he is clear that the stories are a means of learning the histories of the western countries.

The stories that Rashid handle in his book help him to get fame, as he awakens the feelings that the people in the western countries had in the last few years. The only worry is; when will the western countries know that they need peace in order to make their countries stable. Day in day out, the western countries are fighting so as to be at the top of the other.

The fight for competition in the world markets and the fight for prestige are the main reasons why they get involved in the war from time to time. However, the result is that every time, they shed innocent blood, the blood of people who are not aware even why the countries are in a war. In fact, it is fun how Rashid congratulates the world leaders, the bureaucrats, all sorts of politicians and heads of state.

He also offers his word of advice to the powerful men in the world, who are having the role of leading people. He tells them about the best ways to lead the wars, but as he notes, instead of following his advice, they are doing the opposite. This is something which we witness every coming day, as the leaders are following their own interests, and not even the interests of the countries which they are leading. It is personal interests which are driving the world, as everyone wants to remain in power or have to collect bundles of wealth before they get out of power.

This is the main reason why some presidents want to remain in power for the rest of their lives. This is why he notes; power has replaced people because, in the place where people were given a privilege, the power has been planted there and the citizens are the last to be thought of. Rashid has divided the book into some sub-topics, all who are dealing with different pictures.

For instance, in the chapter where he deals with the war which was fought in the Swat Valley and which was fought between Pakistan and the Islamist Militants. The chapter is known as A sliver of hope. In that war, 1.4 million refugees were taken from the war and crowded in a UN refugee camp. As the Un called it; it was one of the world’s greatest displacement crisis, because the war was getting severe and people were tensing more and more. There was no journalist who was allowed in, whether local or international.

This is because it was feared that they might report the situation of the refugees, which was so bad. In fact, it could have brought a very bad image on the UN, but it was clear that the circumstances were very cruel at that moment. In the same war, Pakistan is given an A grade.

According to Rashid, Pakistan and India are two countries that are the same in a way, because they are not able to consider themselves outside any destructive paradigm. Their people have longed for peace which is not forthcoming, and for almost a century, they are undergoing the same circumstances. The fact that the Anti-American sentiment in Pakistan has been done with by the military as well as the nefarious Inter-Services Intelligence is noted by Rashid as manipulating the violent protests against Nato (Rashid, 2013).

He goes ahead to say that on the November of the previous year, there was an airstrike which killed 24 Pakistan soldiers. This is why the agency is not liked as it can cause disruption of peace. However, there is one thing which Rashid fails to understand, and it is the reason as to why after the 12-year war, the diplomatic exercise ends up in the humiliation of people, and later, thousands of innocent people lose their lives.

The deaths were caused by the drones, which just kill from above without considering who to kill and why. It was a kind of revenge on the country, which cannot be determined as to why it is happening so. Thus, as he observes, it is no need trying to resent the American militaries, who have a hundred and one enticements which help in whipping itself out. In fact, according to Rashid, they should be happy that they did it themselves.

As he gives his stand, Rashid explains that he no longer loves the Afghan President the way he used to do. He tells how he used to write articles which referred to the president as `his friend, ’ but in the present times, he says that he will never do it again. This also opens to us that he is a news reporter (Riedel, 2013). His sudden change came over when it was clear that the president had presided over gross corruption, factions, and dashed the hopes of the people of Pakistan and as he is describing him, he is now paranoid and controversial.

In fact, some critics think that Rashid should be congratulated for telling the truth, especially concerning the elites of Pakistan. He does not fear, to tell the truth, and the truth alone. This shows that if he does not know a lot about Pakistan, then he had conducted a very detailed study which helped him to know everything which was going on in the country. We at times doubt the citizenship or the intelligence of Rashid because he has an in-depth understanding of Pakistan, Afghanistan and even the US. Comment by mohammed oweija: “huh?” the professor wants to a better explanation of what you want to say.

In fact, he analyses the whole of the western countries in the most appropriate way, And he offers accurate information and data. However, being a news reporter can qualify him for the job, but that is not enough. He also demonstrates a very high understanding of the politics of the countries, which also qualify him to be a sophisticated writer. For instance, we do not expect him to offer so much information about Europe, the US and their security systems, and even what activities are being done in Afghanistan.

The book is a history of the pain that people have gone through, from the moments the countries were being built. The histories continue to tell us the formation of allies which fought in which war, the reason behind the wars and the results of the wars (Rashid, Pakistan on the Brink: The future of Pakistan, Afghanistan and the West, 2012). However, the results are obvious; the massive death of people, some of whom are innocent, destruction of property and other political.


At times, we feel the betrayal of the past times, when the people had to the right of what they want, but their plight was decided by the political leaders (Rashid, 2013). This is the reason why he notes that leadership is about power and not people. Everything was done with violence which made wars to be provoked at any time. It is clear that at times, it was not clear why the countries are fighting. They could just fight because they want to lead or they want to colonize. They did not want to know whether the fights can lead to success or not.

A good example is when the drones were used in fighting. They know that the ultimate sufferer was the citizen since the leaders have better securities and in most cases, they are not affected. In other places, Rashid analyzes, the Taliban terrorists and the way they were operating, noting that they may take over at any time when they think that the right time has come. In a way, we can say that the analysis of this author had both social and political intentions when he was writing the book. This is because he handles both topics in a clear way such that they cannot be divided.

All in all, we can give credit to Rashid, for bringing the past into our eyes and helping the people know what they can expect of the future. The difference between the past and the present is very small and can be noted by any intelligent analyst.














References Rashid, A. (2012). Pakistan on the Brink: The future of Pakistan, Afghanistan and the West. Penguin Books Limited, 2012. Rashid, A. (2013). Pakistan on the Brink: The Future of America, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. Penguin, 2013. Riedel, B. O. (2013). Avoiding Armageddon: America, India, and Pakistan to the Brink and Back. Brookings Institution Press, 2013.

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