Part one :Population of the world:
Demography is the study of human populations – their
size, composition and distribution across space – and the
process through which populations change. Births, deaths
and migration are the ‘big three’ of demography, jointly
producing population stability or change.
A population’s composition may be described in terms of basic demographic
features – age, sex, family and household status – and by features of the
population’s social and economic context – language, education, occupation,
ethnicity, religion, income and wealth. The distribution of populations can be
defined at multiple levels (local, regional, national, global) and with different types
of boundaries (political, economic, geographic). Demography is a central
component of societal contexts and social change.
What demographers do goes well beyond this broad definition and draws
extensively from related disciplines – Sociology, Economics, statistics, History,
Political Science, Anthropology, Psychology, Public Health and Environmental
Demography is very useful for understanding social and economic problems and
identifying potential solutions. Demographers are engaged in social planning,
market research, insurance forecasting, labor market analysis, economic
development and so on
Many disciplines deals with population study as , geography ,
sociology . psychology , economic , politics ………depending on
demographic figures .
Population: a number of people in specific place and time.
The total number of populations Of the world is: world 7,773 billion In
Population geography is a division of human geography. It is the
study of the ways in which spatial variations in the distribution,
composition, migration, and growth of populations are related to
the nature of places. Population geography involves demography
in a geographical perspective. It focuses on the characteristics of
population distributions that change in a spatial context.
.Some Terms in Population Geography: –
Overpopulation refers to a population which exceeds its sustainable size within a
particular environment or habitat. Overpopulation results from an increased birth
rate, decreased death rate, with few or decline in available resources. Therefore,
overpopulation describes a situation in which a population in an area
exceeds the resources available for survival. As in India , Sudan ,
Egypt ,Phippean and Pakistan ……..etc
Under population exists when a population is too small, therefore unable to fully utilize
the available resource endowments. Under population is also characterized by a situation where
the available resources are capable of supporting a much larger population with no reduction in
living standardsas the GCC countries ,Australia and Canada …….etc
Population problems all regions of the world facing a pop problem
The developed countries facing a population problem (Aging
Population) because of low birth rate its population is declining so they
encourage young people from developing countries to have citizenship
In Developing countries, the problem of population is the high
Increasing number of people at the same time the shortage of food and
In Geography How can we study population?
We have to answer three question
• Where is the main areas of population distribution (1)?
• is there a major areas of population concentrations.
How? they are distributed ??? in Urban or Rural areas ?
Along a river valley , near the sea coast ??
Cluster or scattered in the area.
How is the population of the area ?? ( Population Characteristics as
marital ,education , economic , religious, gender , nationalities status ) (2
Why? Why they are living there? Or Why they are increasing ?
Growth (3 )
What is the main source of demographic data?
• (Most important data source for human geographers is the census)
• Every country of the world makes her own census
• some country makes it regularly every 5 years, or 10 years l like
Egypt ,united kingdom, united states, united Arab emirates.
• Some countries make it irrugularly such as India, china
• Why china and India did not make it regularly?
• Because they have a large number of populations ..
• United Arab Emirates make its census every 10 years.
The study of population geography of the world is critically important
for three reasons?
1. more people are alive more than 7.75 billion in 2020
That numbers more than any other point in the earth history. (we
do not reach that number before)
2. The world’s population increased at a faster rate since the second
half of the twentieth century than ever before in history ( Population
Explosion Time ) as a result of high birth rate and low death rate .
3. In Fact all global population growth is concentrated in developing
countries (they represent about 85 % of the total population of the
world 2020 ) their percentage increasing year after year look at the
following figure , most of them are poor , that is means more
Increase of population means more (poverty)
Population distribution of the world.
The population of the world is un even distributed, most of them
live or concentrate (Clustered ) In small areas
WHAT are THE MAIN AREA OF population CLUSTURS or
MOST OF PEOPLE of the world 66 % of them are Concentrated in
East Asia: including China, Mongolia ,Taiwan, Korea and Japan
South Asia: Including India ,Bangladesh , Pakistan ,Sri Lanka .
Bhutan and Nepal
South east Asia: Including Indonesia ,Philippines , Malaysia ,
Vietnam , Thailand and others
Two minor clusters minors:
USA and Canada 2.5 % of the total population of the world
Western Africa 2.5 % of the pop. of the world
Why do population concentrate in that area? What is the main reason of
that population concentration ?
What are the similarities among the cluster areas of
population of the world ?
1. Most people are living in Planes or even surface area
2. The soils are Fertile .
3. There is a adequate water? many rivers or heavy rain
4. Good ( Moderate ) climate
5. Living By the river valleys and sea Coast with easy way to the
interior of mainland
EX. Most of population of China are concentrated in the eastern parts for
many reasons ( why ) By contrast ,the western part (Tibet )is very cold
and mountains area . very small population number living there
comparing with the eastern part. China’s map indicates that the
population numbers always decreasing toward the inner land .Therefore
we notice that the central areas of all continents with low numbers of
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