Rennebohm Hall n University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Pharmacy
777 Highland Avenue n Madison, WI 53705-2222 n 608.262.5378 n [email protected]
This slide presentation was compiled and produced by Robert
McCarthy, Ph.D., Professor and Dean Emeritus at the University of
Connecticut School of Pharmacy for his class â€œThe History of
American Pharmacy.â€ Prof. McCarthy created this version of the
slide talk for his class in the Spring of 2016.
This slide presentation was downloaded from the Teaching the
History of Pharmacy section of the website of the American Institute
of the History of Pharmacy (https://aihp.org/historicalresources/teaching-the-history-of-pharmacy/) where a copy of the
syllabus (.pdf) for Prof. McCarthyâ€™s class is also available.
This .pdf copy of the slide presentation was shared with the permission
of Prof. Robert McCarthy for the personal and educational use of
The History of American Pharmacy
Although medical schools began to be established in
the 18th century, pharmacy continued to use an nonstandardized, apprenticeship model.
Given the scarcity of apothecaries, physicians would
often provide the apprenticeship, which may have been
via an indenture for a period of 5-7 years.
1854: APhAâ€™s Committee on Education urged drug
clerks (employee pharmacists) to read the pharmacy
literature, but did not advocate formal education for
Prior to the end of the Civil War, formal pharmacy
education was only available in American at a New
Orleans medical school and at six independent
schools operated by local pharmacy associations;
these schools were to supplement apprentice training
not replace it.
The first schools of pharmacy: Philadelphia (1821),
Massachusetts (1823), New York (1829), Baltimore
(1841), Cincinnati (1850), Chicago (1859), and St. Louis
Lectures at these early pharmacy schools were
provided during the evening by physicians and
These schools had no admission requirements and
little laboratory instruction.
Graduate requirements: pass an examination and
complete a 4 year apprenticeship
Before 1860, less than 5% of all American pharmacists
graduated from these schools; in 1873, there were 12
American schools of pharmacy with an enrollment of
less than 600 students .
Practical Pharmacy: The Arrangements, Apparatus, and
Manipulations of the Pharmaceutical Shop and Laboratory
(1849)â€”William Procter, Jr.: â€œFather of American
Pharmacy;â€ during his life he was a practitioner, teacher,
scientist, author, and editor
An Introduction to Practical Pharmacy: Designed as a Textbook for the Student, and as a Guide to the Physician and
Pharmaceutist (1856)â€”Edward Parrish: first American textbook based on American sources
Practice of Pharmacy (later referred to as Remingtonâ€™s Pharmaceutical Sciences and now titled Remington: The Science and Practice of Pharmacy or simply known as â€œRemingtonâ€™s;â€ 1885)â€”Joseph Remington: latest edition is
still used today
Morrill Act (1862): created the land grant university
(UConn is one), which provided federal land to each
state that could be sold to fund the establishment of a
university that taught the agricultural and mechanical
A number of pharmacy schools ultimately were
established at or joined these land grant universities.
The Connecticut College of Pharmacy, established in
1925, officially joined UConn in 1941, although it
would be 10 years before it moved from New Haven to
1870: First convention of delegates from schools of
pharmacy; their goal was to attempt to develop
standards for all pharmacy graduates across the
nation (there were concerns about the University of
Michigan program, the first pharmacy program at a
public institution, that did not require an
apprenticeship, but did offer laboratory training)
During this period, there was a general belief that
pharmacy could only be learned through an
apprenticeship and schools that graduated
pharmacists without an apprenticeship were not
competent to practice.
1874: Conference of Schools of Pharmacy (established by
Agreed that pharmacy graduates would receive a Ph.G.
(Graduate in Pharmacy) diploma (University of Michigan
awarded the Ph.C. [Pharmaceutical Chemist])
Tennessee College of Pharmacy was nearly expelled for
awarding the Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm.D) for the same
requirements as the Ph.G.
Important point: Schools of pharmacy were often
prevented from making needed changes by the state
associations that established and operated them; this led
to the dissolution of the Conference of Schools of
Pharmacy in 1883.
Albert Benjamin Prescott (1832â€“1905)
transformed American pharmacy education
by creating a full-time university-based
program of study leading to a pharmacy
degree in 1868 at the University of
Michigan. Within 30 years, every pharmacy
program in the country followed the model
National Institute of Pharmacy: 24 lectures that could
be completed in a year
The Era Course of Pharmacy: two years of
correspondence lectures and examinations
A Compend of Pharmacy (1886)–Francis E. Stewart
A Course of Home Study for Pharmacists (1891)–Oscar
With the dissolution of the Conference of Schools of
Pharmacy in 1883, the APhA established the Section
on Pharmaceutical Education.
In 1892, the APhA Section on Pharmaceutical
Education voted to encourage all pharmacy schools to
establish a 3-year course of study.
1900: the American Conference on Pharmaceutical
Faculties (later American Association of Colleges of
Pharmacy) was formed; its Constitution mandated
that it would meet at the APhA annual meeting.
1905: the American Conference of Pharmaceutical
Faculties and the APhA Section on Education &
Legislation adopted the following degrees:
Ph.G. (graduate in pharmacy)
Ph.C. (pharmaceutical chemist)
Phar.B. (bachelor of pharmacy)
1906: Pharmaceutical Syllabus was developed by
APhA, National Association of Boards of Pharmacy,
and American Conference of Pharmaceutical Faculties
to provide uniform instruction in pharmacy; the
Syllabus was intended to be revised every 5 years.
American Conference of Pharmaceutical Faculties
approved a 4-year baccalaureate in pharmacy
program for all member schools effective 1932.
1935: University of Michigan Hospitals proposed a
one-year internship after graduation prior to
Source: American Pharmacists Association.
1937: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
established by the American Association of Colleges
1940: National Association of Boards of Pharmacy
established the first national apprenticeship
1942: American Foundation for Pharmaceutical
Education was founded and provided financial
support to many pharmacy schools during WWII.
After WWII, the American Council on Education
recommended a universal 6-year program for pharmacy
(pre-professional + professional); most schools were
unwilling to make the jump from 4 to 6 years; thus, the 5-
year compromise program was adopted (although several
west coast schools did adopt the 6-year, PharmD
program( University of Southern California offered the
PharmD as its only degree beginning in 1950). In 1954,
AACP approved a standard program of at least 5-years no
later than April 1965 (which helped to ensure an adequate
general education portion). Ohio State University was the
first to establish a 5-year program in 1948.
Evolution of Pharmacy Degrees in the 20th
Evolution of Pharmacy Degrees in the 20th Century
Ref: Zebroski, A Brief History of Pharmacy: Humanityâ€™s Search For Wellness
1968: APhA urged that the internship be replaced by
an externship that would occur 6 months before
1974: ACPE proposed that school externships and
clerkships should be used in place of internships as a
requirement for licensure (even today, not all state
boards of pharmacy have adopted this).
The 1960s and 1970s, saw the genesis of the clinical
pharmacy shifting pharmacy practice from productfocused service to patient-oriented care that emphasized
Courses such as analytical chemistry, pharmacognosy, and
industrial pharmacy were replaced by anatomy/ physiology,
pathophysiology and biopharmaceutics.
Federal capitation grants in the early 1970s required a
clinical component in the curriculum; as a result,
pharmacy schools added clinical faculty, sometimes
causing friction between pharmaceutical sciences and
clinical faculty over resources and curriculum (a challenge
that still exists today).
Key National Studies:
1975: Pharmacists for the Future (also known as the Millis
Commission Report) advocated a competency-based
Suggested ending educational practices that trained pharmacy
students without interactions directly with patients and other
health care professionals
Advocated shifting the focus from the drug product to the patient
and helping them optimize the benefits of their drug
1979: National Study of the Practice of Pharmacy established
standards of practice to assist curriculum committees in
developing practice-oriented courses and help accrediting
bodies evaluate educational programs.
Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education
Founded as the American Council on Pharmaceutical
Education (ACPE) in 1932, the agency’s name was changed to
the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education in 2003.
At its inception, ACPE established standards for the
baccalaureate degree in pharmacy; later, standards for the
doctor of pharmacy were added.
2000: ACPE announced the conversion to the doctor of
pharmacy (Pharm.D.) as the sole entry-level degree for the
profession of pharmacy.
1975: ACPE developed standards for providers of continuing
pharmacy education; in 1999, standards for the CE providers
conducting certificate programs in pharmacy were
In 1990s, spearheaded by Hepler & Strand, the
concept of pharmaceutical care became the new
mission for pharmacy. Pharmaceutical care says that
pharmacists, not just prescribers, are responsible for
the outcomes of drug therapy.
Pharmaceutical or pharmacists care is today
considered the standard of practice expected of
1984: APhA Task Force on Pharmacy Education identified
competencies expected of entry-level practitioners and
recommended the 6-year degree as the sole entry-level
degree into the profession (very controversial).
1989: AACP established the Commission to Implement
Change in Pharmaceutical Education to articulate the
mission for pharmacy practice that could serve as the basis
for pharmacy education. The commission produced two
background papers and a position paper, â€œEntry-Level
Education in Pharmacy: A Commitment to Change,â€
which supported the Pharm.D. as the single entry-level
degree into the profession. The AACP House approved
the single-degree recommendation in 1992.
1992: APhA, American Society of Hospital (now HealthSystem) Pharmacists, and National Association of Retail
Druggists (now National Community Pharmacists
Association) jointly supported the Pharm.D. as the sole
degree for entry into practice; National Association of
Chain Drug Stores opposed the conversion.
More than 130 pharmacy programs in the U.S.; nearly double
Most pharmacy programs today are 2+4, although some
continue to say they are 0+6 because they admit from high
school; this is a misnomer, however, given the ACPE
requirement that there be a second tier of evaluation/admission
into the professional years of the program.
Pharmacists today are licensed by state boards of pharmacy. To
be eligible to practice in that state, they must pass a national
exam, the North American Pharmacist Licensure Examination
(NAPLEX), to determine whether the licensure applicant
possesses the minimum competence to be admitted to practice
and the Multistate Pharmacy Jurisprudence Examination
(MPJE), which contains both federal and state-specific laws.
University of Connecticut School of
Dean Gustavus Eliot
1925 â€“ 1928
Dean Henry S. Johnson
1928 â€“ 1947
Dean Harold G. Hewitt
1947 â€“ 1969
Dean Arthur E. Schwarting
1970 â€“ 1980
Dean Karl A. Nieforth
1981 â€“ 1993
Dean Michael C. Gerald
1993 â€“ 2002
Dean Robert L. McCarthy
2002 â€“ 2013
Dean James R. Halpert
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.
You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.Read more
Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.Read more
Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.Read more
Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.Read more
By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.Read more