Appendix 3 – Harvard Style Guide for References
GDI, University of Manchester, 2014
Citation: the author+date item that appears in your text.
References: the full details of all items you have cited in your text.
Bibliography: other items you have used/read but not cited.
… … Hartman (2008), in her seminal study on urban regeneration, found no evidence to
support the role of charitable donations. However, Okuda (1998:224) concludes that
“donations can have some positive impact if the donors are involved throughout the project’s
history”. The present fieldwork indicated support for the latter viewpoint from the Bamako
project (Toure 2012). … …
Hartman, P.V. (2008) ‘Urban regeneration in the Third World’, Regeneration Today, vol. 13,
no. 4, pp. 23-45.
Okuda, Z. (1998) Charities, Donors and Projects, Penguin, London.
Toure, S. (2012) Personal interview with author, Ministry of Irrigation, Bamako, Mali, 14 Nov.
Citations in Your Text
Author: …Jameson (2012) first explained that…
Two/three authors: …Rasmussen and Phillips (2013) make the point also noted by Versing,
Tatler and Mardy (2008) that…
More than three authors – use et al: …it was found by Rasmussen et al. (1998) that…
Harvard Manchester Referencing Style Guide
More than one item by same author in same year – use lettering: … (Jameson 2004a). …
Quote – use page number wherever possible: … “making information systems harder to
develop” (Heeks 2011: 45).
Multiple citations in a list – using date order: … (Zifcak 2009; Aucoin 2011; Boston et al.
Organisational authorship: …for the revised policy document (Dept. of Internal Affairs
Web site – cite as for author/organisation rules; do not put just the Web address.
Secondary references: …Jones (2005 cited in Tomas & Rayus 2009) states…: note include
both items in the reference list.
No author – for newspaper or magazine – use name of newspaper/magazine: … (The
No author – use the title of the work … budgetary mechanisms have failed (Beating the
budget blues 1999).
– Citations at end of sentences should appear inside the full stop.
Arrange in alphabetical order of author surname.
Author/Editor surname, initials. (Year) Book Title, Publisher, Place of publication.
Hogan, J.F. (2013) Urban Profiling in Developing Countries, Harper, New York.
Two authors (note edition):
First author surname, initials. & Second author surname, initials. Rest as per normal.
Link, C.J. & MacLean, P. (2008) Rapid Rural Appraisal, 3rd edn, Polity Press, London.
Don’t use et al in reference list.
Sheridan, M.C., Jacobs, C., Thomas, A. & Raward, S. (2012) The Government Management
Primer, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Put (ed) or (eds) after name:
Heeks, R.B. & Jones, G. (eds) (2009) ICTs in High Mountain Regions, Routledge, London.
Chapter in book/proceedings:
Author name(s). (Year) ‘Chapter title’, in Book Title, eds Editors names, Publisher, Place of
publication, Page numbers.
Walsham, G. (2002) ‘Centralisation of data processing’, in Social Implications of IT, S.
Bhatnagar & M. Odedra (eds), McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, pp. 134-51.
Author surname, initials. (Year) ‘Title of article’, Title of Journal, Vol. no.(Part/issue no.): Page
Wittmer, P. (2007) ‘Project control under the microscope’, Journal of International
Development, (23)5: 124-32.
Author surname, initials. (Year) ‘Title of article’, Title of Newspaper [place], Date, Page
Kennedy, C. (1999) ‘China feels the heat of Clinton campaign’, The Guardian [London], 13
Dec., p. 12.
Item with no author:
Item title. (Year) then book publisher/journal location details as per normal.
Beating the budget blues. (2006) People Management, 21(14): 6.
Organisation name. (Year) Title of Document, Organisation name again, place of publication.
UKCVO (2011) Best Practice for NGOs, UK Council for Voluntary Organisations, London.
Name of government department. (Year) Title of Document. Government printer/publisher
(or originating department), Place of publication.
Ministry of Rural Development. (2007) Rural Infrastructure Projects, Indian Government
Stationery Office, New Delhi, India.
CIA (2012) Update Assessment on Iraq, Central Intelligence Agency, Washington, DC.
Author details. (Year) ‘Title of paper’, paper presented at Title of conference, Place and date
Nichols, J.R. (2011) ‘Patterns of NGO development’, paper presented at the Development
Studies Association annual conference, University of York, UK, 19-22 September.
Lecturer’s name. (Year) Title of Handout, Course unit title handout, Department, University,
Place, Date of issue.
Heeks, R.B. (2012) Information in Organisations. Fundamentals of Information and
Information Systems course unit handout, GDI, University of Manchester, Manchester, 8
Interviewee’s name. (Year) Personal interview, Place and date of interview.
Teller, J. (2006) Personal interview, Ibadan, Nigeria, 12 July.
Author details. (Year) Message title, Email to whom [Online], Date sent, Available: Email:
email address of recipient [date accessed]
Nicholson, B. (2012) Re: Indian software industry, Email to R. Heeks [Online], 13 Oct.,
Available: Email: [email protected] [Accessed: 14 October 2012]
Author details. (Year) Page title/heading, Publisher/organisation [Online], Available: URL
Bradstock, T. (2006) Egypt Online Network, Manchester College of Technology [Online],
Available: http://www.mct.ac.uk/cfs/egypt.html [Accessed: 14 September 2014]
Notes: if no author is apparent, use organisation name or page title; if publication date is not
clear put (n.d.)
Foreign language document:
Use relevant reference format given above, all translated into English, then give the original
language title in brackets after the translated title. E.g.
Ministry of Foreign Affairs (2013) Software Production and Trade in Latin America
[Producción y Comercio de Software en América Latina], Ministry of Foreign Affairs,
Buenos Aires, Argentina
– What matters most is a) that the reader could locate any item in your reference list; b) that
you are consistent: i.e. that you do all similar items the same way.
– Acceptable variations include: a) putting place of publication before publisher for books
(e.g. … Chichester, UK: John Wiley); b) not putting year in brackets; c) doing journal article
details like this: …vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 124-32.
– The University provides a more-detailed Harvard style guide, which uses slightly different
variations on the above – http://subjects.library.manchester.ac.uk/referencing-harvard –
either be consistent with the guide above or be consistent with the University guide; both
are fine but don’t “mix and match”.
Appendix 4 – SEED Word Count Policy
For every piece of work which you are required to submit for assessment, the Course
Convenor will indicate the word limit. This is a maximum word count and should not be
exceeded. Markers can take into account minor transgressions of up to 10% within the existing
marking criteria which means that you can lose marks for not being concise.
The word count includes:
chapter footnotes and endnotes
It does not include:
appendices (which should be for supporting, illustrative material only and may not be used
to elaborate or extend the argument)
You must include a word count on the front page of every piece of work. Failure to indicate
the word count, or the provision of a false word count, may lead to disciplinary action.
What are the penalties for exceeding the word count?
If you exceed the word count by between 10-50%, your final assignment mark will be
capped at 50% (PGT) or 40% (UG).
Work exceeding the word count by more than 50% will be viewed as not having met the
requirements of the assessment. The work will not be marked and a mark of zero will be
Please note also that you must retain an electronic copy of each piece of work which you
submit for assessment.
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