The Mediating Role of Self-Esteem

The Mediating Role of Self-Esteem in the Relationship Between Selfie-Posting and Body Dissatisfaction
Selfie-posting is one of the forms of online self-presentation (Chua & Chang, 2016). Technological affordances of
the Internet such as asynchronicity and editability significantly affect people’s self-presentation (Walther, 1996).
Asynchronous systems of the Internet provide individuals with “almost unlimited time for editing, composing,
sending, and retrieving messages” (Hesse et al., 1988, p. 151). Such technological features have allowed individuals
to easily emphasize positive self-images and desirable impressions of themselves, which encourages selective selfpresentation
online. The selective self-presentation was originally advanced with text-based online
communication. Hancock and Toma (2009) have enlarged the scope of selective self-presentation to visual works
of self-expression such as online profile photographs. Similar to text messages, profile photographs of online date
sites were found to be carefully chosen and digitally editable (Hancock & Toma, 2009; Toma & Hancock, 2010).
Prior research shows that the enhancement of profile pictures can lead to a high likelihood of success in online
dating (Gibbs et al., 2006). Similar to online daters, SNS users also participate in the selective self-presentation by
uploading information or photographs that make themselves look attractive, positive or ideal (Bergman et al.,
2011; Manago et al., 2008; Mendelson & Papacharissi, 2010; Siibak, 2009; Zhao et al., 2008). This selective selfpresentation
on SNS was found to be positively related to online life satisfaction (Y. Kim & Baek, 2014) and
subjective well-being (J. Kim & Lee, 2011).
Self-esteem is defined as an individual’s self-evaluation of oneself (Rosenberg, 1965). Self-esteem indicates how
people feel and think about their worth, value, importance, or abilities (Rosenberg, 1965). As online selfpresentation
has become a part of young people’s everyday activities (Chua & Chang, 2016), researchers have
investigated how online self-presentation influences individuals’ self-esteem. For instance, Toma (2013) has shown
that SNS users can preserve a positive self-image and cope with threatening situations through viewing highly
desirable self-presentation on SNS. After experiencing an ego threat (i.e., exposure to negative feedback), SNS
users were found to unconsciously choose to browse their SNS profile page containing the happy side of
themselves. After viewing their profile page, they appeared to restore the perceived worth of the self (Toma &
Hancock, 2013).
Such positive effects of selective self-presentation on self-esteem can be explained by the positive illusion theory
(S. E. Taylor & Armor, 1996). The theory posits that those with positive illusions such as self-aggrandizement,
unrealistic optimism, and exaggerated perceptions of control are more likely to successfully adjust to stressful or
self-threatening events (S. E. Taylor & Armor, 1996). Furthermore, levels of happiness and contentment are found
to be associated with positive self-concepts, illusory beliefs of control, and optimism concerning the future (S. E.
Taylor & Armor, 1996). That is, people’s positive illusions of themselves can increase levels of positive feelings such
as subjective well-being (J. Kim & Lee, 2011) and happiness (S. E. Taylor & Brown, 1988).
SNS users’ selfie-posting as a form of selective self-presentation may play a role in generating positive illusions of
themselves. SNS users tend to post their beautiful or flawless selfies for gathering audiences’ feedback they expect
(Mascheroni et al., 2015). Halpern et al. (2017) explained this tendency by using the self-perception theory which
proposes that individuals shape their attitudes by looking at their own behaviors (Bem, 1972). This theory suggests
that SNS users determine their attitude towards themselves from observing their acts of self-presentation (Kelly
& Rodriguez, 2006). Based on positive feedback from audiences, SNS users may interpret the meaning of their
selfie-posting behavior and adjust their perceptions of themselves. Such perceptions can influence their
subsequent selfie-posting behavior (Halpern et al., 2017). Following the self-perception theory, Halpern et al.
(2017) argued that SNS users create an “ideal persona” by continually posting selfies that can attract positive
feedback from their audiences.
Moreover, selfie-posters can internalize the idealized persona that they build via selfies (Halpern et al., 2017). The
internalization of positive traits of the self-presentation may allow selfie-posters to build positive illusions of
themselves. As mentioned earlier, individuals consciously or subconsciously make efforts to take, select, and edit
selfies in order to show a preferred and hoped-for version of themselves before posting them on their SNS (Chua
& Chang, 2016; Mendelson & Papacharissi, 2010). Hence, SNS selfies can be a tool of more selective self-expression
compared to SNS photographs taken by others. This suggests that selfies may be more apt as a vehicle for the
internalization of an ideal illusion of the self rather than photographs taken by others. Such selfie-posters’ positive
illusions of themselves may help to construct a positive self-image and boost their self-worth that may be lacking
in offline life (Chua & Chang, 2016). In other words, Instagram users’ selfie-posting behavior may satisfy their
fundamental desire to perceive themselves to be worthy and valuable by producing positive illusions of
In sum, Instagram users’ repeated selfie-posting behavior can result in the internalization of idealized or positive
traits that their selfies attain, which may contribute to enhancing their positive illusions of themselves.
Consequently, this may lead to raising their self-appraisals and changing their self-concept (Kelly & Rodriguez,
2006; Schlenker et al., 1994). Therefore, it is plausible to expect that Instagram users’ selfie-posting behavior can
play an important role in boosting their self-esteem.
Low self-esteem has been known to closely related to young women’s negative body image such as body
dissatisfaction and body shame (Paxton et al., 2006). For instance, Fingeret and Gleaves (2004) found self-esteem
indirectly influences body dissatisfaction through the internalization of appearance standards. In a similar vein,
Tylka and Sabik (2010) have shown that low self-esteem predicted body surveillance, body comparison, and body
shame. Those with high self-esteem incline to like or value themselves and accept their physical appearance as it
is (Fitch, 1970). Thus, they may not need to monitor their body and compare it with others’ bodies. In contrast,
those who have low self-esteem tend to dislike or devalue themselves (Fitch, 1970). Also, they may not have
confidence in their physical appearance. Therefore, they are more likely to vigilantly monitor their physical
appearance and compare their physical appearance against others’ appearances (Mercurio & Landry, 2008; van
den Berg et al., 2007). As a consequence, those with low self-esteem are more likely to experience body shame
(Tylka & Sabik, 2010). In sum, the relevant literature has provided evidence that low self-esteem can be a risk factor
for young women’s body image (Downs et al., 2006; Fingeret & Gleaves, 2004). Thus, it is possible to predict that
Instagram users’ high levels of self-esteem may contribute to decreasing their body dissatisfaction.
As mentioned earlier, Instagram users’ selfie-posting behavior may help to construct their positive self-image and
beliefs about themselves, which may contribute to enhancing their self-esteem. It is also likely that enhanced selfesteem
may lead to a decreasing in body dissatisfaction. Connecting previous studies reviewed above, Instagram
users’ self-esteem may play a mediating role in the relationship between their selfie-posting behavior and body
dissatisfaction. Therefore, the following hypothesis is proposed:
H1: Self-esteem will mediate the relationship between selfie-posting behavior and body dissatisfaction such that
(a) selfie-posting behavior will increase self-esteem, which will in turn (b) decrease body dissatisfaction.

Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
The Mediating Role of Self-Esteem
Just from $9/Page
Order Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment Help Service Works

1. Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2. Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3. Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4. Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essay GET A PERFECT SCORE!!! smile and order essay Buy Custom Essay

Place your order
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

Read more

Free-revision policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

Read more

Privacy policy

Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

Read more

Fair-cooperation guarantee

By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

Read more
error: Content is protected !!
Open chat
Need assignment help? You can contact our live agent via WhatsApp using +1 718 717 2861

Feel free to ask questions, clarifications, or discounts available when placing an order.
  +1 718 717 2861           + 44 161 818 7126           [email protected]
  +1 718 717 2861         [email protected]