The Race Discrimination
Department of Sociology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195;
email: [email protected]
Annu. Rev. Sociol. 2012. 38:17–35
First published online as a Review in Advance on
May 1, 2012
The Annual Review of Sociology is online at
This article’s doi:
Copyright c 2012 by Annual Reviews.
All rights reserved
cumulative advantage/disadvantage, racial disparities, racial inequality,
To understand the persistence of racial disparities across multiple
domains (e.g., residential location, schooling, employment, health,
housing, credit, and justice) and to develop effective remedies, we must
recognize that these domains are reciprocally related and comprise an
integrated system. The limited long-run success of government social
policies to advance racial justice is due in part to the ad hoc nature of
policy responses to various forms of racial discrimination. Drawing
on a systems perspective, I show that race discrimination is a system
whose emergent properties reinforce the effects of their components.
The emergent property of a system of race-linked disparities is ¨ uber
discrimination—a meta-level phenomenon that shapes our culture,
cognitions, and institutions, thereby distorting whether and how we
perceive and make sense of racial disparities. Viewing within-domain
disparities as part of a discrimination system requires better-specified
analytic models. While the existence of an emergent system of ¨ uber
discrimination increases the difficulty of eliminating racial disparities,
a systems perspective points to strategies to attack that system. These
include identifying and intervening at leverage points, implementing
interventions to operate simultaneously across subsystems, isolating
subsystems from the larger discrimination system, and directly
challenging the processes through which emergent discrimination
strengthens within-subsystem disparities.
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