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Trait and Personality Factors
After completing this chapter, you should be able to:
1. Explain how traits and personality influence leadership behavior.
2. Identify the Big Five personality characteristics and explain how they relate to leadership.
3. Describe emotional intelligence and how this theory relates to leadership.
4. Explain how narcissism and Machiavellianism can derail leaders.
5. Describe how the Myersâ€“Briggs Type Indicator is used to understand leadership behaviors.
6. Describe entrepreneurial leadership and decision making. Explain why â€œintrapreneurshipâ€ is
an important leadership process.
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Leadership theory has evolved over time, often paralleling and reflecting changes in our economic structure and
workplace environments. In more stable preindustrial times of the 19th century when our society was largely agrarian,
early leadership scholars were in search of specific traits, or distinguishing qualities or characteristics of a personâ€™s
nature, that defined a successful leader. The pursuit of a specific set of traits became known as the â€œGreat manâ€ theory
of leadershipâ€”meaning that there was a definitive set of qualities that made a person an exceptional leader.
Personality theory, that is, â€œindividual differences in characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling and behavingâ€ (American
Psychological Association, 2015), also emerged in the 19th century, but it was popularized with the development of the
Myersâ€“Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) in 1943, when employers started to become more selective about who they hired
and why. By the 1940s, the work environment was still stable but organizations grew in size, bureaucracies emerged,
and the position of â€œmanagerâ€ and rational planning evolved. Efficiency and predictability were emphasized in the study
of leadership and organizations.
From the 1950s through the 1970s, the work environment moved from stable to more complex. Leadership theorists
turned to the study of behaviors, motivation, and how to match leaders with followers in particular contexts. During the
1960s and 1970s, as organizations continued to change, cross-functional teams and horizontal structures were created.
Group processes and contingency theory emerged, that is, the study of leadership styles that â€œfitâ€ with followers and the
work context. But efficiency was still valued and leadership theory focused on transactions (exchanges) between leader
and follower, rather than transformations.
From the 1970s through the 1990s, the work environment became increasingly globalized and even more complex and
competitive. Leadership studies turned the focus to leaders as transformational, change champions who influenced
followers through relationships. In recent decades, leadership theory has further evolved due to the influences of the
Internet, information technologies, and an increasingly diverse workforce. Leadership studies began to focus on change,
teams, and variations of previous leadership concepts. Now trait and personality theory, behavioral and contingency
theory, leaderâ€“follower exchanges, and group and team processes are used in conjunction with one another to further
our understanding of what makes effective leaders and leadership.
The increased emphasis on stakeholders and stockholders inside and outside of the organization requires a wider
range of competencies, thus the emergence of ethical leadership, strategic communication, high-performance cultures,
negotiation, conflict management, and always peopleâ€”individuals, teams, and groups.
So, then, what make a great leader? What distinguishes leaders from others? Are leaders born or made? These are
questions we have puzzled over throughout history. In attempting to answer such questions, early theories, as
previously discussed, focused on traits and personality characteristics with the hope of finding the â€œmagic ingredientsâ€
of leadership. Although certain traits can, according to recent research, predict the emergence and appearance of
leadership, traits and personality characteristics alone cannot distinguish between effective and ineffective leadership
(Robbins & Judge, 2015). However, research has shown that both traits and personality matter with regard to predicting
organizational outcomes, such as leaderâ€“follower relationships, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, leadership
promotion and development (Nichols & Cottrell, 2014).
Personality theory, which encompasses trait theory, provides a broader context. Personality is the combination of
physical, mental, emotional, and social characteristics and traits. Traits and personality theory, shown in the dimension
of leadership in Figure 1.1 (in Chapter 1) are examined more closely in this chapter. We will discuss how leadership can
be developed and how certain personality traits can be learned and used to pave the way for leadership practices. As
you read, consider your own personality and traits as they relate to your approach to leadership. Or, perhaps consider
the personality and traits of leaders you admire and think about how they all fit into the theories presented.
Assessments in this chapter provide information to help you understand your own evolving leadership style and the
styles of others. To get started, take the Big Five personality assessment at http://personality-testing.info/tests
/BIG5.php (http://personality-testing.info/tests/BIG5.php) . Scroll down to take either the 50-item or the 100-item version.
Your results will be explained later in this chapter.
This chapter begins with discussing the trait theory and the personality approach to leadership, which today focuses
heavily on the Big Five personality traits. We then examine emotional intelligence (also known as EI or EQ) and other
leadership characteristics related to personality. Finally, we examine the popular Myersâ€“Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
assessment thatâ€™s commonly used in the workplace. We conclude with a discussion about entrepreneurial leadership
and decision making with regard to personality.
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Branson: Paul Kane/Getty Images News/Thinkstock; Schultz: Ted
S. Warren/Associated Press
Richard Branson and Howard Schultz share
entrepreneurial traits. Schultz is more
contemplative; Branson is more fun loving
and risk taking.
3.1 Trait Theory
One of the first modern efforts to scientifically study leadership was trait theory. Researchers in the early 1900s were
interested in why certain people became leaders and others did not. They studied military, political, and religious figures
â€”Jesus, Mahatma Gandhi, Abraham Lincoln, NapolÃ©on Bonaparte, Joan of Arc, and othersâ€”and focused on identifying
leadership traits, or innate individual characteristics that might result in a good leader. Their conclusion: Great leaders
were born, not made.
The â€œgreat manâ€ theory, as it was called, would give rise to what is now known as trait theory. Initially it was called into
question; researchers examining the early studies noted that although these â€œgreat menâ€ did share some characteristics,
the theory overall failed to take a leaderâ€™s situational context into account (Stogdill, 1948). In other words, people who
are leaders in one situation may not be leaders in a different kind of situation. However, Stogdill would later revive the
trait approach when he empirically showed that certain traits did support effective leadership across various situations
(1974). These traits included dependability, cooperativeness, assertiveness, initiative, dominance, high energy, selfconfidence, stress tolerance, responsibility, achievement orientation, adaptability, cleverness, persuasiveness,
organizational and speaking abilities, risk taking, and originality.
Later researchers isolated other traits. Kirkpatrick and Locke (1991)
found in their qualitative studies that task knowledge, confidence,
motivation, drive, cognitive ability, and integrity differentiate leaders
from nonleaders. Other researchers have found that leaders have
certain traits related to social intelligence, that is, the understanding
and awareness of their own and othersâ€™ emotions, feelings,
behaviors, and thoughts, as well as the ability to self-monitor and
respond to different situations (Marlowe, 1986; Zaccaro, 2002). More
recently, Zaccaro, Kemp, and Bader (2004) found higher intelligence,
reasoning, and verbal and perception abilities in leaders compared to
nonleaders. These researchers caution that leaders who have higher
intelligence than their followers may experience problems relating to
the followers because of the leadersâ€™ advanced ideas.
Contemporary researchers have argued that optimism, drive, selfconfidence, honesty, and integrity are particularly important for
effective leadership (Jones, 2005). These particular traits are
discussed in more depth here because they are particularly relevant
to the leadership theories discussed in subsequent chapters.
Optimism refers to having a positive outlook or thinking positively.
Optimistic leaders tend to see the good in people and organizations
and believe in favorable results. This doesnâ€™t mean optimistic leaders
are blind to the negative; they are simply able to see possibilities and
seek opportunities. Imagine if AppleÂ® CEO Steve Jobs had stopped at
Macintosh computers, or if he had allowed a power struggle with the
companyâ€™s board to halt his career. (This happened in the 1970s, and
Jobs went on to found another company before returning to Apple
and spearheading the launch of its vanguard cell phone and tablet.)
Stephen McDonnell, founder and CEO of Applegate Farms, the leading
producer of organic and natural meats and cheeses is widely quoted as arguing that optimistic attitudes are the most
commonly observed characteristic in top-level executives. Optimism is a main characteristic of leaders (Daft, 2011).
Furthermore, optimistic leaders instill and inspire similar attitudes in others. They demonstrate more self-confidence,
believing in themselves and showing more assurance in their own skills, abilities, decisions, and visions. Self-confident,
optimistic leaders are not paralyzed by fear or anxiety and can therefore more readily lead others to face uncertainty
and challenging situations.
Drive can be described as determination, motivation, or compulsion that leads to increased effort. Driven leaders seek
achievement, show tenacity, and are perceived as ambitious (Kirkpatrick & Locke, 1991). In other words, they work
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Chris Hondros/Getty Images News/Thinkstock
Bernie Madoff was sentenced to 150 years in
prison in 2009 for running the biggest
fraudulent Ponzi scheme in U.S. history. He
lured investors into his investment scheme,
taking $65 billion. He was charged with
fraud, money laundering, perjury, and theft
hard. Effective leaders also often tap into their followersâ€™ drive. A management strategy called ROWEâ€”which stands for
â€œresults-oriented work environmentâ€ and was first introduced at Best Buyâ€”evaluates employees by the results they
produce, not the schedules they keep. Google cofounder and CEO Larry Page supports a â€œ20% program,â€ in which
professional engineers can use 20% of their time to create and team up on projects they like. Such approaches involve
giving â€œpeople autonomy over what theyâ€™re doing and how they do it, an opportunity to master it and a sense of
purpose in doing it in the first placeâ€ (Spiers, 2010; see also Pink, 2009).
Honesty can be defined by what it is not: lying, and knowingly and willingly deceiving others. Integrity means wholeness
of character; a leader with integrity is integrated and balanced, and acts ethically. A survey of 1,500 managers identified
honesty and integrity as the most desired values in leaders.
Honesty, as a dimension related to ethics discussed in chapter 2, is absolutely essential to leadership. After all,
if we are willing to follow someone, whether it is into battle or into the boardroom, we first want to assure
ourselves that the person is worthy of our trust. We want to know that he or she is being truthful, ethical, and
principled. We want to be fully confident in the integrity of our leaders. (Kouzes & Posner, 1993, p. 138â€“
Integrity and honesty are also related to the survival and success of
corporations. Bernard Madoff, currently serving a 150-year prison
term for $17 billion investor fraud and who in 2014 suffered a heart
attack, is a recent business example of dishonesty and greed. Classic
examples of corporate scandalsâ€”Enron, Tyco, WorldCom, Arthur
Andersen, and other prestigious firmsâ€”at the turn of this century
have taught us that honesty counts. Enronâ€”the former energy,
commodity, and services companyâ€”specifically became synonymous
with corporate corruption and greed after executives decided to hide
the companyâ€™s true financial condition via suspect accounting
practices. The company and its former executives paid the
consequences: Enron had to divest and sell its North American power
utility, gas pipeline assets, and global interests in utilities and power
plants, and paid out more than $21.6 billion to its creditors between
2004 and 2010 (â€œEnron Creditors Recovery Corpâ€). Former president
Ken Lay and former CEO Jeff Skilling were found guilty on multiple
charges, including fraud, making false statements to accountants, and
insider trading. Ken Lay died of a heart attack in 2006 before being
sentenced to a life term in jail, and as of 2011, Jeff Skilling was still
serving a 24-year prison sentence, that was reduced in 2013 by 10
years. However, the fallout extended far beyond those two men:
Thousands of employees at Enron and the other firms lost almost all of their pension savings.
Trait theory is based on considerable research and has broad appeal; people like to perceive leaders in terms of certain
traits. However, although the traits discussed here have shown to be associated with leadership, no traits, with the
exception of the Big Five discussed in the next section, have been linked to successful organizational outcomes or
performance, and it is difficult to predict how leaders with certain traits would be effective in organizational situations.
(We will discuss this more in later sections.) However, the trait theory approach does serve a purpose in the workplace.
As we will discuss further in the following section on personalities, trait theory provides some insight into what makes a
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Personality is a powerful concept that can
provide insights into how leaders, followers,
and professionals make decisions and
3.2 Personality Approach
The word personality is often associated with people who are either
popular and well liked or are unpopular and not very well likedâ€”that
is, we tend to say a person has a â€œgood personalityâ€ or not. This
oversimplification of the concept can be misleading. As part of social
science and organizational behavior studies, personality is a powerful
concept that organizes individual capacities, emotions, and motives
(Wang, 2010), and can provide insights into how leaders, followers,
and professionals make decisions and influence relationships. It is a
Are leaders made or born? There is consensus among scholars that
personality is partly hereditary but also developed. Although
personality can and does change, it is more changeable in
adolescence according to some researchers (Hampson & Goldberg,
2006). Knowing a personâ€™s personality profile does not predict who
will be an effective or ineffective leader, but as we discuss in the
following sections, there are personality characteristics that do
indicate effective, emergent leadership practices. Also, personality
theory is another tool and concept you can use to help you better
understand yourself as an evolving or current leader as well as
understanding the actions and behaviors of leaders around you.
Personality theory provides a broader context of which trait theory is a part. Personality is the combination of physical,
mental, emotional, and social characteristics and traits. It can be the way people act and react to others (Robbins &
Judge, 2015), and it affects an individualâ€™s perceptions and behaviors. Unlike the great man theory and early research
on traits, some personality characteristics have been linked to leadership effectiveness. Leaders benefit by knowing
their personality characteristics. First, they can increase their own self-awareness and awareness of others. Research
(Palmer, Green, Duncan, & Zarate, 2013), as well as practical experience, shows that leadersâ€™ personality characteristics
influence followers. Second, they can learn to adjust their personal style to accommodate their followers. Finally, they
can adapt their communication and personal style to enhance performance. We will examine two personality theories
that are among the most popularly used by corporations worldwide and are of interest to current scholars: the Big Five
personality model and the Myersâ€“Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). We will also discuss emotional intelligence. But first
letâ€™s start with the dark side of personality.
Dark Side of Personality
In an attempt avoid glorifying the nature of leadership and the personalities of those who lead, scholars have written
about the â€œdark sideâ€ of personality. We will point out some of these critiques in different chapters throughout the text,
but letâ€™s touch on what the dark side of personality actually means.
Slattery (2009), for example, defines the dark side of leadership as â€œan ongoing pattern of behaviour exhibited by a
leader that results in overall negative organisational outcomes based on the interactions between the leader, follower
and the environment. Organisational goals, morale and follower satisfaction are thwarted through the abuse of power
and self-interest of the leaderâ€ (p. 4). Other authors have referred to the dark side of leaders as â€œtoxic,â€ â€œdestructive,â€
â€œpetty tyrants,â€ â€œaversive,â€ â€œarrogant,â€ and derailed (Slattery, 2009).
Other scholars, such as Hogan and Hogan (2001), provided 11 dark side personality traits: excitable, skeptical, cautious,
reserved, leisurely, bold, mischievous, colorful, imaginative, diligent, and dutiful. Ashforth (1994) noted that the signs of
dark side leadership also include behaviors such as â€œself-aggrandisement, belittling followers, lack of consideration for
others, a forcing style of conflict,â€ punishment for no reason, discouraging initiatives, and undermining organizational
goals and the well-being of followers (Slattery, 2009, p. 3).
This is all to say that personality is complex. Personal beliefs, values, and motivation, in addition to situational and
relational factors, all play a part in helping us understand leadership and how particular personalities manifest
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themselves. Having a charming personality could compel followers, but we need to be mindful of where it is weâ€™re being
The Big Five Personality Characteristics
The Big Five personality characteristicsâ€”which have also been referred to as â€œtraitsâ€â€”are the product of decades of
research (Digman, 1990) and have shown the most promising empirical results related to leadership effectiveness. The
model condenses 25 years of research into five general characteristics (or factors) that make up personality. Studies
confirm that there is a relationship between these characteristics and job performance (Barrick & Mount, 2004; Oh &
Berry, 2009). According to this model, any individualâ€™s personality you wish to describe is based on the following
1. Extraversion: The extent to which a person is outgoing, excitable, sociable, talkative, assertive, and emotionally
expressive. Highly extroverted leaders can also exert high-energy, take-charge, determined attitudes and
behaviors. Extraversion also relates to dominance, that is, leaders who are assertive, competitive, and have a
take-charge approach to getting things done. Opposite the spectrum of extraversion is introversionâ€”individuals
who are more often energized by reflecting through thinking and taking time to observe and process
information, and who relate to individuals more comfortably than to large groups. Extraversion has been
shown to be the most predictive characteristic of effective emergent leadership (Judge, Bono, Ilies, & Gerhardt,
2002). Note that being too assertive and dominant can also result in decreased leader effectiveness (Ames &
2. Agreeableness: The extent to which a person shows trust, cooperation, compassion, kindness, affection, and
understanding. Agreeableness is also related to being sensitive, affiliative, and sociable (Jokisarri & Nurmi,
2009), that is, paying attention to others, forming relationships, and being friendly and approachable. This trait
is related to emotional intelligence, discussed later in the chapter. Agreeable people are generally more liked
than disagreeable individuals, are more â€œcompliant and rule abiding, less likely to get into accidents, and more
satisfied in their jobsâ€ (Robbins & Judge, 2015, p. 127). However, agreeable people participate in citizenship
behavior, contributing to organizational performance and not showing organizationally deviant behavior (Ilies,
Fulmer, Spitzmuller, & Johnson, 2009).
3. Conscientiousness: The extent to which a person is thoughtful, goal directed, dependable, organized, and mindful
of details. Conscientiousness and openness, next to extraversion, indicate a strong association to leadership.
Because conscientiousness and extraversion are also positively related to leadership self-efficacy (Ng, Ang, &
Chan, 2008)â€”that is, an individualâ€™s belief about her or his ability to produce outcomesâ€”it follows that this
personality characteristic, and that of extraversion, are also related to leadership performance (Robbins &
4. Neuroticism (Adjustment): The extent to which a person is emotionally unstable, anxious, moody, irritable, less
self-confident, and prone to sudden emotional outbursts. A question for leaders and followers with regard to
this dimension is how to manage oneâ€™s emotions. Effective management of emotions results in self-control,
stability, calmness, and maintaining composure in difficult and crisis situations. Composure and being relaxed is
also associated with higher self-confidence, more positive attitudes, and being able to offer constructive and
uplifting feedback. At the opposite end of this spectrum, as noted above, is a loss of self-control and self-â€
confidence, symptoms of which often manifest as nervousness and irritability that can lead to negativity,
narcissistic behaviors, and even hostility.
5. Openness: The extent to which a person is imaginative, flexible, insightful, and intellectually curious and sensitive.
Being open to new experiences encourages creativity, innovation, and the ability to deal with complexity and
ambiguityâ€”all are important characteristics needed for change and exploration. A study by Palmer et al. (2013)
showed that participantsâ€™ personalities who are more extraverted and open to new experiences â€œbelieve
Directive Leadership contributed to being an outstanding leader and, conversely, that the more extraverted and
open to new experiences the participants, the less they believed Bureaucratic Leadership contributed to
outstanding leadership, and the more they believed that Self-Serving Leadership inhibited outstanding
leadershipâ€ (p. 62). At the same time, those who are more open to experiences may also be more prone to
workplace accidents (Clark & Robertson, 2008). The opposite end of the spectrum of openness is closemindedness which indicates inflexibility, not having resilience, and not being able to adapt to changeâ€”
characteristics that do not contribute to effective leadership influence and performance.
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Big Five Continuum
Another way of understanding the Big Five model is to view the characteristics on a continuum, that is, to what extent
and under what conditions are you extraverted or introverted, agreeable or antagonistic, conscientious or lacking
integrity and dependability, able or unable to control your emotions, and open or closed to new experiences?
1. Extraversion ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. Introversion
2. Agreeableness ………………………………………………………………………………………………. Antagonism
3. Conscientiousness……………………………………………………………………………. Unscrupulousness
4. Neuroticism/Adjustment ………………………………………………………………. Emotional stability
5. Openness to experience…………………………………………………………………….. Closed-mindedness
A meta-analysisâ€”an analysis that combines and synthesizes the results of several separate and related studiesâ€”of
leadership and personality studies between 1967 and 1998 found that four of the traits from the Big Five theory were
strongly associated with being an effective leader: in order of strongest effect, extraversion and conscientiousness,
openness, and low neuroticism. Studies have also largely supported the idea that the Big Five theory is universally
applicable across cultures, despite differences in language, history, religion, political systems, and other cultural features
(Paunonen et al., 1996; Triandis & Suh, 2002; Yamagata et al., 2006). As will be discussed in later chapters, culture
affects behaviors and values, which in turn can affect how coworkers interact with one another. The Big Five theory has
provided evidence for accessing personality characteristics across cultures.
In addition to the assessment source offered earlier, take the brief Five Factor Personality Test (at
http://www.personalitytest.org.uk (http://www.personalitytest.org.uk/) ), then reflect on your experiences and
personal style at work, at home, and with friends. Do your experiences agree with or differ from your Big Five
assessment results? In what ways can this assessment be helpful to you as a developing leader?
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3.3 Emotional Intelligence (EQ)
Emotional intelligence, abbreviated EI or EQ (as in IQ, only here we are discussing emotional elements of intelligence),
is a personâ€™s ability to be self-aware (recognize oneâ€™s emotions when experienced), notice emotions in others, and
manage emotional cues and information. An emotionally intelligent leader is able to effectively manage oneself and
others (Goleman, 2000) and is further able to use the power of emotional energy to inspire, motivate, understand, and
improve the morale of organization members and teams. One researcher attributed Abraham Lincolnâ€™s enormous
power as a president to emotional intelligence, not to IQ, charisma, or political ability (Kauffman & Coutu, 2009).
Another study, which examined the successes and failures of 11 U.S. presidents (from Franklin Roosevelt to Bill Clinton),
found that the main characteristic differentiating the successful (e.g., Roosevelt, Kennedy, and Reagan) from the
unsuccessful (e.g., Johnson, Carter, and Nixon) was emotional intelligence (Smola & Sutton, 2002). Emotional intelligence
can be learned and practiced.
One research study indicated that effective leaders use different components of emotional intelligence. Goleman (2000)
grouped these various capabilities into four basic classifications, as shown in Figure 3.1: self-awareness, selfmanagement, social awareness, and relationship management.
Figure 3.1: Emotional intelligenceâ€”four dimensions
Self-awareness is the foundation for the other three emotional capabilities. When leaders are not self-aware, it is
doubtful they can be aware of others. Being self-aware means being able to see and understand your emotions and
feelings and how they affect you in your work and private life. As a result, you can accurately evaluate your weaknesses
and strengths. You also have more self-confidence and trust in your own instincts, particularly when there are no
answers from other sources. A self-aware leader is better able to â€œsee realityâ€ in complex situations and in other people.
Self-management, the second important capability, is the ability to control moods, emotions, and desires that can be
problematic and disruptive. This doesnâ€™t mean suppressing, avoiding, disguising, or denying these feelings; it means
understanding them (Weisinger, 1998). Thus, those around you can be assured that you will be consistently authentic
and honest with themâ€”without being an emotional time bomb. You also will be known for honoring your
responsibilities and overcoming obstacles easily because you can adapt to different situations without letting your
emotions get in the way (Daft, 2011). Leaders who cannot do this can self-destruct professionally. They may offend or
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Chris Carlson/Associated Press
Social awareness is the ability to
understand others and be
empathetic. Former Los Angeles
Lakers coach, now President of
the New York Knicks, Phil
Jackson, has shown professional
awareness, and a service
orientation to his players and to
the organization heâ€™s with.
blame followers or important partners by projecting their fears and insecurities onto them. They may act immorally and
illegally by not controlling their desires or moods. Consider politicians who have had emotional outbursts, committed
unethical acts, or been caught lying and consequently been pressured to quit because they lost the publicâ€™s trust, their
legitimacy, and their influence. It takes years to build a credible reputation, and moments to lose it.
Social awareness is the ability to understand others. A socially aware leader is
empathetic: able to put oneself in other peopleâ€™s situations and show compassion
and concern, while keeping an objective perspective. Frost (2004) called this â€
process the ability to show â€œprofessional intimacy.â€ Socially aware leaders are
also better able to understand the context of an organizational situationâ€”they
can more clearly see the big picture of their organizationâ€”while understanding
the needs of clients, employees, and other external stakeholders. Former Los
Angeles Lakers coach Phil Jackson, who has worked with some of the sportâ€™s
great players, emphasized social awareness in his coaching style. As a former
professional basketball player himself, Jackson was able to empathize with the
men he coached. He practiced meditation and settled his team down with
moments of quiet reflection, strengthening the teamâ€™s common bond, and helping
players become more aware of each otherâ€™s capabilities. Jackson recognized that
a strong, cohesive team is the key to the big picture: an NBA championship.
Jackson won 11 NBA championship titles as a coach and playerâ€”the most in the
leagueâ€™s history (Abbott, 2010).
Relationship management is the capability to emotionally connect with others,
build positive relationships, and express kindness, compassion, and sensitivity.
Successful leaders are good communicators able to create and sustain
relationships, thus building broad networks of people and setting the stage for
unprecedented collaboration. We have already established that leaders inspire
trust. As a result, they are able to influence others, setting the tone for a caring or
high-achieving company culture, managing conflict, leading change, and guiding
people to achieve extraordinary visions and organizational goals.
Emotional intelligence has had mixed empirical results with regard to leadership
effectiveness, but continues to be studied and used by practitioners. It is
important to note that EQ, while important to leadership, is not a substitute for IQ
(mental ability) (Dubrin, 2015). Leaders need logical and emotional abilities in solving problems and influencing others.
Neither IQ nor EQ is more important than the other; both are essential for effective leadership and followership.
Leadership studies have provided sufficient evidence over the last century to argue that there is no best way, style, or
characteristic to lead and influence people to accomplish organizational goals.
Please take Assessment 3.1 for your EQ score and compare your results with the other assessments you have taken.
Remember, there is no right or wrong style. These assessments can help you identify your strengths and areas for
development as an evolving leader.
Assessment 3.1: Emotional Intelligence
For each of the following questions, please indicate the degree to which each statement characterizes you.
1â€”Never like me. 2â€”Occasionally like me. 3â€”Sometimes like me. 4â€”Frequently like me. 5â€”Always like me.
1. I empathize with other people when they have problems. ___________
2. I go out of my way to help someone in need. ___________
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3. Most people feel comfortable talking to me about their personal feelings. ___________
4. People enjoy spending time with me. ___________
5. It is easy for me to openly express warm and loving feelings toward others. ___________
6. When someone is annoying me, I stop to think about the other personâ€™s situation rather
than losing my temper.
7. In most cases I give people a second chance. ___________
8. I think about how I can improve my relationships with those people with whom I donâ€™t get
9. I think about why I donâ€™t like a person. ___________
10. When someone makes me uncomfortable, I think about why I am uncomfortable. ___________
11. I can be assertive and forceful in situations where others are trying to take advantage of
12. I can delay gratification in pursuit of my goals. ___________
13. When I am anxious about a challenge, I still can prepare for it. ___________
14. I am able to stay motivated when things do not go well. ___________
15. I keep myself focused on my goals. ___________
16. Overt human suffering makes me feel uncomfortable. ___________
17. Criticism is difficult for me to accept. ___________
18. Having car trouble makes me feel stressed. ___________
19. I lose control when I do not win in a sporting contest. ___________
20. Traffic jams cause me to lose control. ___________
Sum your scores for questions 1â€“5, and divide by 5.
My â€œperception, appraisal, and expression of emotionsâ€ score is _______.
Sum your score for questions 6â€“10 and divide by 5.
My â€œemotional facilitation of thinkingâ€ score is _______.
Sum your score for questions 11â€“15 and divide by 5.
My â€œunderstanding and analyzing emotions, and employing emotional knowledgeâ€ score is _______.
For questions 17â€“20, reverse-score each item by subtracting your score from 6. Next, sum your new scores for
these four questions, add in your score to question 16, then divide by 5.
My â€œreflective regulation of emotionsâ€ score is _______.
Finally, sum your four scores together and divide by 4. My overall (global) emotional intelligence score is _______.
Thorndike (1920) provided an intelligence framework that identified three types of intelligence: social, concrete,
and abstract. His conceptualization of social intelligence is the underpinning for the contemporary reference to
emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence involves the ability to perceive emotions, to access and generate
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emotions to assist thought, to understand emotions and emotional knowledge, and to regulate emotions
reflectively to promote emotional and intellectual growthâ€ (Tapia, 2001). This definition links intelligence and
emotion and promotes the dual ideas that emotion can make thinking more intelligent and that one can think
intelligently about emotions.
According to Tapia (2001), your first score reflects your ability to appraise emotions in yourself and others
(empathy). The second score deals with emotions when thinking is prioritized by directing attention to important
information. (Are your emotions sufficiently vivid and available so they can be used as aids to judgment and
memory concerning feelings?) Your third score deals with your ability to label emotions and understand
complex feelings. Your fourth and final score concerns your ability to stay open to feelings (both those that are
pleasant and those that are unpleasant). Overall, the global scale for emotional intelligence attempts to assess
your perception, assimilation, understanding, and management of emotion.
A high score on each of the four dimensions is reflective of a high level of emotional intelligence on that
particular dimension. A score equal to or greater than 4 on each dimension and on the global assessment
suggests a high level of emotional intelligence. A score equal to or less than 2 on each dimension and on the
global assessment suggests a low level of emotional intelligence.
Source: Measuring Emotional Intelligence, Psychological Reports, 88 (2001) pp. 353â€”364, Copyright 2001 Ammons Scientific Ltd. These 20 items reflect a
subset of the Tapia (2001) and Tapia & Burry-Stock (1998) instrument for the measurement of emotional intelligence and are shown here to illustrate the
measure and highlight the constructâ€™s meaning. Tapia and Burry-Stockâ€™s 41-item measure can be found in: M. Tapia & J. Burry- Stock. 1998. Emotional
Intelligence Inventory. Tuscaloosa, AL: The University of Alabama.
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3.4 Other Personality-Related Leadership Characteristics
Other personality attributes are also important predictors of leadership behaviors. The following characteristics help
you better understand and evaluate leadership effectiveness in others and in yourself: self-concept, locus of control,
narcissism, Machiavellianism, entrepreneurial leadership, risk taking, and decision making.
Self-concept is a personâ€™s overall understanding about herself or himself that includes attitudes, feelings, self-esteem,
and self-confidence. Those who have a positive self-concept see themselves as capable and in control of themselves and
their environment, and have confidence in their judgments, ideas, and skills. Those with a negative self-concept and core
evaluation question their capabilities, see themselves as powerless, and tend not to value or like themselves (Barry &
Friedman, 1998; Robbins & Judge, 2011). Leaders who have negative or weak, insecure self-concepts can limit othersâ€™
career development and personal growth, as well as sabotage their own reputations.
Self-concept can also affect the way leaders view, influence, and lead others. McGregor (1960) observed two types of
general attitudes that leaders have about subordinates: Theory X and Theory Y. Theory X leaders, whose assumptions
may be characterized as â€œcommand and control,â€ see people as lazy and unmotivated to work and thus believe followers
have to be controlled, directed, coerced, and micromanaged. These types of leaders are more production and task
oriented and can be short-tempered, impatient, and autocratic when it comes to followersâ€™ feelings and concerns.
Theory Y leaders, on the other hand, whose assumptions may be characterized as commitment and trust oriented, see
people as being more interested in assuming responsibility and more willing and ready, in the right working
environments, to give full effort, attention, creativity, and energy to helping achieve organizational goals. Such leaders
tend be more consideration and people oriented. Research evidence regarding attitudes and leadership success
generally supports McGregorâ€™s two classifications, but his theory requires more study.
Locus of Control
Why do some leaders tend to take credit for success but blame others for mistakes, while other leaders assume
responsibility for whatever happens under their leadership? This tendency can be described in terms of an individualâ€™s
locus of control. Locus is another word for site or location, so locus of control literally refers to where a person thinks
control, or responsibility, lies. Leaders with a high internal locus of control believe what happens to them is a result of
their own actions and they take responsibility accordingly. Leaders with a high external locus of control believe
outside forces determine what happens to them and tend to blame others for mistakes and mishaps. These people are
less likely to succeed in effectively leading others.
A leader who exhibits a high internal locus of control owns and takes responsibility for a decision he or she makes, its
outcome, and its consequences. Take a quick online quiz to get a sense of your locus of control
(http://www.psych.uncc.edu/pagoolka/LC.html (http://www.psych.uncc.edu/pagoolka/LC.html) ).
Narcissists have a grandiose sense of self-importance. They are arrogant and are always seeking admiration and
attention. More extreme narcissists believe the world revolves around them. Oracleâ€™sÂ® CEO Larry Ellison has been
described as having a high level of narcissistic tendencies. One of his executives said, â€œThe difference between God and
Larry is that God does not believe he is Larryâ€ (Maccoby, 2000, p. 70). It is not surprising that some narcissists are more
charismatic than other leaders (Sosik, Chun, & Zhu, 2014).
Most would agree that Ellison is a successful leaderâ€”Oracle is among the top software companies in the worldâ€”but
narcissists are generally less favorable leaders. Narcissists in the workplace talk down to and belittle people who
challenge them, and tend to create toxic environments. In extreme cases, narcissistic leaders can literally destroy
companies. We can return to Enron as an example, as former CEO Jeff Skilling could possibly have been such an extreme
narcissist. He manipulated financial statements and information to suit his needs and formed a clique around himself of
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The term Mach is derived from
NiccolÃ² Machiavelliâ€™s 16thcentury book The Prince and
refers to those who gain and use
power without regard to
consequences. Machiavelli wrote
â€œthe ends justify the means.â€
Enron traders and aggressive followers whom he liked and could manipulate. He acted in his own self-interest, without
regard to ethics or other people, and forced Enronâ€™s spectacular downfall.
Manufacturing conglomerate Tyco provides another example. The company came under fire in 2002 when it was
discovered that then-chairman and CEO Dennis Kozlowski was using company money for personal luxuries. For
example, Kozlowski hosted lavish parties imitating ancient Roman settings and once gave a $2 million birthday party for
his wife on the Italian island of Sardinia, at Tycoâ€™s expense. He was also found to have purchased a $6,000 shower
curtain with company funds (Crawford, 2005). Kozlowski was sentenced in 2005 to a lengthy prison sentence for
stealing hundreds of millions of dollars from Tyco, but the company spent years working to repair its reputation.
However, as we saw with Oracleâ€™s Ellison, narcissists do not necessarily leave scandals in their wake. In a Harvard
Business Review article, Maccoby (2000) described what he called â€œproductive narcissistsâ€:
Leaders such as former General Electric chairman and CEO Jack Welch or
financier and philanthropist George Soros are examples of productive
narcissists. They are gifted and creative strategists who see the big picture
and find meaning in the risky proposition of changing the world and leaving
behind a legacy. Indeed, one reason we look to productive narcissists in
times of great transition is that they have the audacity to push through the
massive transformations that society periodically undertakes.
Maccoby (2000) noted that productive narcissists may become unproductive
when they become â€œunrealistic dreamersâ€â€”people who are unable to see things
as they really are. Productive narcissists can become unrealistic dreamers
because they are poor listeners, are sensitive to criticism, lack empathy, dislike
mentoring, and possess an intense desire to compete. Exhibiting these types of
behaviors and lack of skills does not contribute to effective goal attainment or
meaningful influence on followers.
Maccoby (2000) suggests that such individuals find a trusted sidekick who can
help anchor themâ€”and that they get therapy.
Machiavellianism (Mach) is named for NiccolÃ² Machiavelli, who, in the 16th
century, wrote a book about how to get and use power. The term Mach (short for
Machiavellianism) refers to those who gain and use power without regard to the
consequences. Machiavelli once noted â€œlet the ends justify the means.â€
Take Bill, for instance. Bill is a real go-getter. He is the youngest supervisor for a large financial services firm, and has
had two promotions in the last two years. A vice president who knows Bill commented, â€œBill is a nice guy, but heâ€™ll do
anything it takes to get ahead. I know heâ€™s thrown a couple of guys who were competing for his position under the bus.
We like that spirit and energy, but it may do him in if he isnâ€™t careful.â€ Bill may be what theorists call a high Mach, or
someone who shows more Machiavellian behaviors. High Machs tend to be more aggressive and, in terms of ethics, act
in nonconstructive ways in the workplace with their manipulative behavior (Oâ€™Boyle, Forsyth, Banks, & McDaniel, 2012;
Hartog & Belschak, 2012). Take the Mach assessment (at http://www.amanet.org/training/articles/EthicalLeadership-Self-Assessment-How-Machiavellian-Are-You.aspx (http://www.amanet.org/training/articles/EthicalLeadership-Self-Assessment-How-Machiavellian-Are-You.aspx) and see how you score.
Research shows that high Machs are more manipulative. They tend to persuade others rather than be persuaded. High
Machs like their work less than low Machs and are often more stressed and involved in deviant work behaviors
(Christie & Geis, 1970)â€”but they also tend to win.
Scoring high on the Mach assessment does not mean that you are immoral or sinister. A high Mach score may indicate
that you are more detached and not as personally engaged with others. High Machs may see life as a game and use
pragmatic and manipulative means to excel. Thus, high Machs seem to prosper when face-to-face interaction is
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prevalent over indirect communication; when situations have minimal rules and regulations, allowing for more
improvisation; and when winning can be achieved without emotional involvement in details (Christie & Geis, 1970). High
Machs, then, succeed more in situations where the ends justify the means, where regulations are ambiguous to
nonexistent, and where the stakes (monetary or other material gain) are high. Whether or not they cross the line from
ethical to unethical or legal to illegal behaviors and actions is not an inherent part of being a high Mach. It may simply
be one risk a high Mach faces. See â€œTake the Lead: The Conundrum of the Superstar Employee.â€
Take the Lead
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Paula Loop defines the concept personal brand and discusses its
importance in todayâ€™s job market. She addresses the goal of
creating a personal brand that is unique, authentic, and accurate.
Personal Branding in Today’s Job Market
Building a Strong Personal Brand
Â© Infobase. All Rights Reserved. Length: 05:48
î˜‹ 0:00 / 5:48 î˜‡ 1x î˜– î˜“ î˜™
Critical Thinking Questions
What is a personal brand? Do leaders and
professionals have a personal brand in
organizations? Explain and offer an example.
Why is deliberately creating and nurturing a
personal/professional brand as a leader important?
Explain how personality theory and the MBTI help
create a personal/professional brand.
3.5 Myersâ€“Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
Personality affects perceptions, attitudes, and
behaviors. Understanding our own personality and the
personality of others with whom we live and work can
help everyone, because personality affects job
satisfaction, relationships, and performance (Yukl,
2011). Although personality assessments are not the
only way of discovering who we are, the more reliable
and valid ones, such as the Myersâ€“Briggs Type
Indicator (MBTI), add additional insights into our
strengths and areas for development. Generally,
personality assessments provide a range of scores on
particular dimensions. For example, a person is not
completely scored as an extrovert or introvert, but will
typically score a certain percentage higher of one
dimension than another.
A goal of taking and understanding any assessment,
particularly the ones in this chapter, is personal and
professional development. What we do not know, we
cannot manage, improve, or perhaps change. As you
read and take the assessments here, as in other
chapters of this text, reflect on these scores with the
goal of self-improvement and developing your
The Myersâ€“Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality
assessment offers a more complete profile of how
different personality dimensions, taken together, can
help leaders evaluate and gain insights into the general
effectiveness and ineffectiveness of their behaviors. The
MBTI is the most widely used assessment worldwide
(Kennedy & Kennedy, 2004). Almost 90% of Fortune
100 companies report using this instrument, including
AT&T, 3M, General Electric, Citigroup, Apple, and FedEx.
It is also used by the U.S. armed forces and other
organizations. Although research does not validate the
MBTIâ€™s effect on leadership effectiveness, the assessment is used to help leaders better understand and appreciate
themselves and their followers.
For example, letâ€™s say youâ€™re a hiring manager and you have two qualified candidates to choose from for a leadership
position. In his former company, Terrence was a company vice president. He is shy and soft-spoken, but is known for his
behind-the-scenes skill of quietly influencing others for the good of the company. The other candidate, Sarah, on the
other hand, is far more outspoken and can even be confrontational. She has a knack for persuading others to work
harder. Who is the more effective leader?
There is no obvious answer to this question, except for perhaps â€œit depends.â€ It depends on parts of all the leadership
theories, concepts, and approaches in this book. We will discuss this in more depth throughout the text, but for now we
will consider this question from the perspective of these two individualsâ€™ personalities. The MBTI can help break down
these personalities to figure out what is the right fit for particular organizational goals and cultures.
The MBTI consists of 100 questions. It classifies individuals as:
Extraverted (E) or Introverted (I). Extraverts are generally sociable, outgoing, and assertive. They gain energy
from being around others. Introverts are generally quieter and sometimes shy and gain energy by focusing
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Level 5 Leadership is defined as a blend of
deep personal humility and intense
internally on their thoughts and feelings.
Intuitive (N) or Sensing (S). Intuitive types focus on the big picture and look for patterns and relationships. They
are visionaries. Sensing types use their five senses to gather information. They are more fact and detail
Feeling (F) or Thinking (T). Feeling types focus on emotions, values, and othersâ€™ feelings. Thinking types focus on
logic and objectivity in making decisions.
Perceiving (P) or Judging (J). Perceiving types desire more information and data in order to make a decision.
They enjoy ambiguity and complexity. Judging types like closure, certainty, and deadlines in making decisions
quickly on limited data.
Personalities are thus described in terms of varying combinations of these four categories. Each has its own strengths,
weaknesses, and typical behaviors, which come with potential positive and negative consequences. If you take the MBTI
assessment online, reflect on how accurately the profile describes you. Can you observe how your personality may
relate to your leadership style and influence?
It is possible that you are not completely in one category or another. For example, you may fall somewhere in between
being an extravert and an introvert, but your results label you an extravert because you happen to lean more in that
direction. Note, also, that these types are not unchangeable. As individuals age and gain more experience and expertise,
their types usually change.
Answer the MBTI questions at http://www.humanmetrics.com/cgi-win/jtypes2.asp
(http://www.humanmetrics.com/cgi-win/jtypes2.asp) and reflect on your results.
There is no magic combination of letters that guarantees a better leader, but studies have revealed some trends. Limited
research suggests that judging and thinking appear most related to effective leadership. Most leaders studied are
judging types, and even organizations that would seem to value â€œfeelingâ€ more highlyâ€”such as counseling centersâ€”
tend to select thinking types as managers (Daft, 2011). A book titled Profiles of Genius, by Landrum (1993), examined 13
founders of highly successful companies, such as SonyÂ®, MicrosoftÂ®, Apple, and Honda, and found that most were NTs
(intuitive thinkers)â€”a type found in only 5% of the U.S. population.
Other tentative research findings include:
Intuitive leaders are the majority in fields and organizations
that involve long-term planning and breaking new ground.
Sensing types are the majority in the construction,
manufacturing, and banking fields, where immediate and
tangible preferences are valued over intuitive styles (Daft,
Of course, not all successful leaders or managers come from the
same mold or fit the same stereotypes. Darwin Smith, who was CEO
of the paper-products company Kimberly-Clark from 1971 to 1991,
was described as â€œshy, awkward, shunning attention.â€ However, Good
to Great author Jim Collins (2005) described Smith as having what
Collins termed â€œLevel 5 leadership,â€ a blend of â€œdeep personal
humilityâ€ with â€œintense professional will.â€ Collins wrote that Smith
â€œshowed iron willâ€ as he turned the company into a â€œworldwide
leader in its industry, generating stock returns 4.1 times greater than
the general market.â€ It might be that Smith, like the shy vice president Bob in our hypothetical example at the beginning
of this discussion, had other characteristics (like iron will) that may or may not have been reflected in a personality
assessment. He could also have had the right mix of experience, attitudes, and skills that matched the organization
(Kimberly-Clark) at the right time in its life cycle. Had Smith taken the MBTI, he might have confirmed that his
personality profile identified his organizational style accurately.
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3.6 Entrepreneurial Leadership
What do leaders like Elon Musk (Tesla, SpaceX), Jeff Bazos (Amazon), Jessica Alba (The Honest Company), Richard
Branson (Virgin Group), and Daniel Ek (Spotify) have in common? They are entrepreneurial risk takers who innovate.
Entrepreneurial leaders organize and initiate new, innovative ventures and business practices, assuming much of the
responsibility and risk in hope of maximum reward (Daft, 2011; Kuratko & Hodgetts, 1998). These people can range
from business magnates like those mentioned above to small-business owners who may not be in the news. Some
college and university students have become entrepreneurial leaders: Microsoftâ€™s Bill Gates, Googleâ€™s Larry Page and
Sergey Brin, and Facebookâ€™s Mark Zuckerberg were university students when they started their companies. All had the
same thing in common: vision, enterprise, and a willingness to take risks. They also think and act outside the box. Their
behaviors can be harmful or dangerous, yet at the same time hold the potential for positive outcomes. It could be
argued that without risk, there is little reward. But taking risks does not assume success. Take the assessment on risk
taking and entrepreneurial thinking to see how entrepreneurial you are.
Shepherd, Trenton, and Patzelt (2014) reviewed 602 articles, distilled them to 156, and summarized characteristics of
entrepreneurs as individuals who are highly diverse and different in their beliefs and desires, which
help explain why some choose to become entrepreneurs and why others choose managerial or other
employment-related roles. Relative to nonentrepreneurs, entrepreneurs have higher levels of individualism,
openness to change, and self-enhancement and lower levels of power, conformity, security (Holt, 1997), and
collectivism (Tan, 2001). Compared to nonentrepreneurs, entrepreneurs also appear to have a more versatile
thinking style that balances both linear (i.e., analytic, rational, logical) and nonlinear (i.e., intuitive, creative,
emotional) approaches to thinking about a situation (Groves, Vance, & Choi, 2011). Moreover, entrepreneurs
are more likely to see situations as relating to personal strengths, representing an opportunity, and
representing potential for gain than nonentrepreneurs. (Palich & Bagby, 1995)
These authors present a complex and nuanced picture of entrepreneurial decision making which includes differences in
gender, national and cultural heritage, perceptions, emotions and affect, experiences, environmental context and
assessments of risk, level of self-efficacy, and meta-cognitive thinking. Moreover, entrepreneurs can also be prone to
certain biases, such as â€œoveroptimism, overconfidence, and overreliance on experience.â€
Entrepreneurs, compared to nonentrepreneurs (Shepherd et al., 2014), tend to show traits and characteristics higher in
individualism, openness to change, and self-enhancement; while demonstrating lower levels of power, conformity,
security (Holt, 1997), and collectivism (Tan, 2001). Obviously not all entrepreneurs are alike, but these characteristics
serve as a starting point for understanding differences between entrepreneurial and nonentrepreneurial traits and
Figure 3.2 illustrates Shepherdâ€™s et al. (2014, p. 14) four dimensions that influence entrepreneurial opportunity
decision making, based on research in this field. The first dimension that influences opportunity assessment is the
individual characteristics of the entrepreneur: their personalities, emotional makeup, biases, and perceptions of the
The second decision entrepreneurs makeâ€”whether or not to enter an entrepreneurial careerâ€”is influenced by
individual â€œaspirations and attitudes, abilities, and opportunity costs.â€ Besides the financial factors needed to start a new
venture, Shepherd et al. (2014) state that â€œperceptions of the self (e.g., identity, abilities, and desires), perceptions of the
environment (e.g., hostile, munificent), and decision-making toolsâ€ (p. 14) are important influencers. The third
influencing factor, or whether or not to exploit an opportunity, involves the degree of planning, the organizational
context, the funding, and how the entrepreneur perceived through his or her moral lens and values the anticipated
outcomes of the opportunity decision. Finally, whether or not an entrepreneur decides to exit an opportunity depends
on the performance of the business as well as personal circumstances and investment reasons. Shepard et al. (2014)
also note that other factors such as gender differences, risk assessment, cultural background, and external environment
factors also influence an entrepreneurâ€™s opportunity assessment decision making.
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Figure 3.2: Map of entrepreneurial decision-making
It is important to note that to assume that entrepreneurs only start companies would be limiting the definition of
entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurs who work inside established organizations are called intrapreneurs. Intrapreneurs
take risks to create new solutions to develop, extend, and change products and services for competitive advantage. For
example, the yellow Post-It notes that are now taken for granted were invented by scientists Spencer Silver and Art Fry,
who both worked at 3M. Silver developed the adhesive, and it was Fry who thought to apply this â€œlow-stickâ€ adhesive to
a piece of paper. However, even after they designed and readied the Post-ItÂ® prototype, it reportedly would be several
years before 3M was willing to recognize its value. Silver and Fry were probably one of the first intrapreneurs. 3M later
instituted a â€œbootleggingâ€ program, enabling innovative engineers to take time off while at work to experiment with
entrepreneurial products. Intrapreneurs may not be as visible as entrepreneurs but they serve a valuable service and
function to organizations in terms of all the roles discussed in Chapter 1.
Like the study of leadership, and Figure 1.1, the roadmap for this text, to understand entrepreneurial leadership and
intrapreneurs also involves examining the dimensions of persons, processes, and systemsâ€”leaders in their
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Summary & Resources
Trait theory and personality theory are central to the study of leadership. It has been said that many organizational
cultures reflect and mimic the personality of their leader(s). The Big Five personality traits are, to date, the most
empirically significant cross-cultural indicators of emergent leadership characteristics, job performance, and job
satisfaction. Extraversion, conscientiousness, openness, agreeableness, and neuroticism (adjustment) are important
indicators of leadership. In addition, the MBTI is one of the most globally used assessments. Although it alone cannot
predict effective leadership or leaders, it is useful in developing self-awareness and in helping leaders gain insight into
The dark side of leadership can be defined as â€œan ongoing pattern of behaviour exhibited by a leader that results in
overall negative organisational outcomes based on the interactions between the leader, follower and the environment.
Organisational goals, morale and follower satisfaction are thwarted through the abuse of power and self-interest of the
leaderâ€ (Slattery, 2009, p. 4). Being aware of the dark side of leadership and being able to take reasonable courses of
action are important to followers, the organization, and oneâ€™s well-being in an organization. For publicly traded
companies the shareholdersâ€™ wealth and resources are at stake, and for nonprofits and other organizations, the wellbeing of employees and safe-guarding of resources may be at risk. Sometimes toxic leadership and destructive
behaviors can be controlled and corrected; sometimes not. Human Resources executives are good resources when it is
suspected that top-level leaders may be placing an organization at risk. Attorneys for the organization and members of
the board of directors are other such resources.
Other personality characteristics and frameworks, such as EQ (emotional intelligence), self-concept, locus of control,
narcissism, Machiavellianism (Mach), and entrepreneurial and intrapreneurial leadership, are also helpful tools and
concepts for understanding personal dimensions of leaders and of ourselves. While environmental and contextual
factors influence entrepreneurial behavior, we also need to understand the personal and emotional makeup of leaders
to gage how effectively they relate to themselves and to others in achieving performance goals.
Harald Port on Corporate Culture
An organizational corporate culture advisor discusses his latest thinking on corporate culture.
Alternatives to Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
Learn more about the DISC personality test: https://www.discprofile.com/what-is-disc/overview/
Take a free DISC personality test assessment: https://www.123test.com/disc-personality-test/
Learn more about the Predictive Index for teams: https://www.predictiveindex.com (https://www.predictiveindex.com)
Briggs and Myers debuted their indicator in 1944. Since then, some alternative tools have come into use, such as the
DISC assessment and the Predictive Index, which have both gained wide acceptance.
Critical Thinking Questions
1. What leadership traits are still important to consider when evaluating a leaderâ€™s personal effectiveness?
4/15/22, 8:49 AM Print
2. Can leaders who do not show high levels on the positive dimensions of the Big Five personality characteristics
be effective in their roles? Explain.
3. Argue the pros and cons of the importance of emotional intelligence to effective leadership.
4. Explain how your MBTI profile offers both effective results and potential derailments to your effectiveness as a
5. Offer examples of leaders in the current business and general news that exemplify different dimensions of the
Big Five personality characteristics. Then explain how the characteristics you identified are helping or hindering
6. Identify a leader(s) in the news who has exhibited â€œdark sideâ€ characteristics. Explain the situation and evidence
that this is the case. Were there any consequences from that leaderâ€™s negative or destructive behaviors?
7. Compare and contrast your own evolving or current leadership style with the characteristics of entrepreneurial
leaders. Use concepts from the text in your comparison and contrast.
Big Five personality traits
Emotional Intelligence (EQ)
external locus of control
internal locus of control
locus of control
Myersâ€“Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
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Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.
You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.Read more
Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.Read more
Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.Read more
Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.Read more
By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.Read more